Dissemination of science – Templo Do Conhecimento http://templodoconhecimento.com/ Tue, 04 May 2021 14:19:23 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.7.1 https://templodoconhecimento.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/cropped-icon-32x32.png Dissemination of science – Templo Do Conhecimento http://templodoconhecimento.com/ 32 32 Social media polarization and mobilization affect infection numbers https://templodoconhecimento.com/social-media-polarization-and-mobilization-affect-infection-numbers/ https://templodoconhecimento.com/social-media-polarization-and-mobilization-affect-infection-numbers/#respond Tue, 04 May 2021 14:09:28 +0000 https://templodoconhecimento.com/social-media-polarization-and-mobilization-affect-infection-numbers/ Measures to contain the Corona pandemic are the subject of a politically charged debate and tend to polarize segments of the population. Those who support the measures motivate their acquaintances to follow the rules, while those who oppose it are calling for resistance on social media. But how exactly do politicization and social mobilization affect […]]]>


Measures to contain the Corona pandemic are the subject of a politically charged debate and tend to polarize segments of the population. Those who support the measures motivate their acquaintances to follow the rules, while those who oppose it are calling for resistance on social media. But how exactly do politicization and social mobilization affect the incidence of infection? Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development examined this question using the United States as an example. Their results were published in Applied network science.

Limit crowds, keep a safe distance, and wear masks. Such non-pharmaceutical interventions, which should be implemented by all if possible in order to contain the incidence of infection, have played a central role since the onset of the Corona pandemic. These measures were disseminated not only through traditional media such as newspapers, radio and television, but also to a large extent on social networks. We can see that government calls, recommendations and regulations are not only greeted with approval and understanding, but also spur politically charged discussions, polarization, conspiratorial narratives and mobilization against the measures – often mixed with opinions. personal.

But what does the rejection of Corona measures depend on? And is there a connection between the politicization of Corona topics in social media and the development of infection numbers? Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development studied this using an engagement model based on the example of Facebook in the United States. The subject of the study was a hypothetical political campaign in which the Democratic Party recommends non-pharmaceutical measures to combat the spread of the Corona virus.

The results of the model’s calculations show that the hypothetical Democratic campaign would have spread to Democratic states three times faster than to Republican states. Regardless of the direction, this political polarization makes it difficult to reach most segments of the population equally. “As a result, the acceptance and subsequent release of the measurements is politically dependent on the sender and recipient,” says Inho Hong, lead author of the study and Fellow at the Center for Humans and Machines from the Max Planck Institute for Human Development.

The researchers then looked at the relationship between social mobilization and the actual spread of COVID-19 cases in the United States. They found that, on the one hand, advocacy can have a positive effect on the pandemic response when large numbers of people come together online to support regulations by disseminating them early and early. On the other hand, there are indications that the political accusation and the resulting actions may have exacerbated the incidence of the infection in certain geographic areas. For example, infection rates rose from mid-April 2020 after Republicans protested against the first lockdown and did not always comply with specified hygiene rules. This means that political regulations such as lockdowns can have the opposite effect after being reinterpreted by politically polarized opponents – and even make matters worse.

The researchers used a mobilization model to simulate social mobilization processes. Data on this came from two sources: the Facebook Social Connectedness Index, a measure that calculates social connections between people in different regions, and demographic information and datasets from the New York Times election protocols. . Based on this data, the researchers calculated how the Democratic campaign would have spread through Facebook and whether it would have led to political actions such as protests.

In previous studies, researchers have used this model of mobilization to examine how political actions have formed and spread on social media in the United States. “The model allowed us to show a link between the social divide in the United States, the dissemination of information via Facebook and the evolution of the incidence of infections,” says Alex Rutherford, principal investigator and principal investigator at the Center for Humans. and Machines at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development and co-author of the study.

The results of the study show that political imputation of pandemic control measures can have a counterproductive effect and even fuel the incidence of infection. “On social media, the mask was quickly reinterpreted as a political statement and used to polarize the population. Governments should therefore ask themselves to whom and through which channels they disseminate information and whether they want to target the mobilization, ”says Manuel Cebrian, leader. of the Digital Mobilization Research Group at the Center for Humans and Machines of the Max Planck Institute for Human Development and co-author of the study.

The study focused on the political attitudes of American citizens. Other potentially decisive social factors such as occupation, income, gender and origin should be examined in further studies. These could provide information for planning communication of future measures – for example, government immunization strategies.

###

Max Planck Institute for Human Development

The Max Planck Institute for Human Development in Berlin was founded in 1963. It is an interdisciplinary research institution dedicated to the study of human development and education. The Institute belongs to the Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science, one of the leading fundamental research organizations in Europe.

Warning: AAAS and EurekAlert! are not responsible for the accuracy of any press releases posted on EurekAlert! by contributing institutions or for the use of any information via the EurekAlert system.



Source link

]]>
https://templodoconhecimento.com/social-media-polarization-and-mobilization-affect-infection-numbers/feed/ 0
Liberalization of geospatial data – the expected impact of India’s new geospatial policy guidelines – Geospatial World https://templodoconhecimento.com/liberalization-of-geospatial-data-the-expected-impact-of-indias-new-geospatial-policy-guidelines-geospatial-world/ https://templodoconhecimento.com/liberalization-of-geospatial-data-the-expected-impact-of-indias-new-geospatial-policy-guidelines-geospatial-world/#respond Fri, 30 Apr 2021 05:30:54 +0000 https://templodoconhecimento.com/liberalization-of-geospatial-data-the-expected-impact-of-indias-new-geospatial-policy-guidelines-geospatial-world/ It has been perceived for some time that the current geospatial data policy, with its archaic limitations that have not been upgraded in decades, has held back the geospatial industry with its feet in complexity. Therefore, when the Department of Science and Technology (DST) announced the new mapping guidelines for India’s geospatial technology sector, there […]]]>


It has been perceived for some time that the current geospatial data policy, with its archaic limitations that have not been upgraded in decades, has held back the geospatial industry with its feet in complexity. Therefore, when the Department of Science and Technology (DST) announced the new mapping guidelines for India’s geospatial technology sector, there was a surge of support for this initiative which can help open up new avenues of development.

One can take the example of the real estate sector in which not only is the policy accelerating the digitization of land registers and the shelving of paper Khasra registers, but also precise mapping of remote and rural areas that can help officials to do so. better land assessments. value. Even capitalization of land assets into equity for startups, debt financing for infrastructure and working capital for farmers and small businesses can now become monetary opportunities with the new policy.

As we examine the impact of the policy on the geospatial industry and take a closer look at what its future holds, let’s start by understanding why the current policy on geospatial data needed an overhaul:

Read also: European Commission Atlas 2020 highlights COVID-19 interactive tool and global policy solutions

Understand the limitations associated with the current geospatial data policy:

Strict restrictions were placed on the collection, storage, use, sale and dissemination of geospatial data and mapping, which meant that acquiring authorization licenses with the red tape involved would delay projects for several months, which was particularly problematic for those in mission mode. The initial policies had been conceptualized purely on the basis of security concerns, so the lack of data was an obstacle to various procedures such as infrastructure, development, business, etc. which greatly benefit from the availability of data.

Even if the Indian government took the initiative to map the entire country with great precision, it would actually take decades, so a few major setbacks facing the Indian geospatial industry included:

  • Lack of access to reliable, content-specific geospatial data
  • Lack of general policy and guidelines to facilitate access
  • No clear understanding of data sharing and storage policies
  • Missing access to the Continuously Operating Reference Station (CORS) network

Read also: In its final step, Trump Admin issues policy directive on GPS and alternative PNT

What led to the deregulation of geospatial data?

Understanding the need to encourage the geospatial sector for Indian companies as well as to increase the investments of private actors in the sector, the Indian government decided to deregulate the geospatial sector. This movement comes from understanding how geospatial data has become essential for government for infrastructure planning, development, protection against natural disasters, agriculture, environmental protection, electricity, water, transport, communications, health and of course overall economic growth.

Due to the global pressure for open access to geospatial data, with its global impact on the lives of citizens, it makes sense to ensure open access except for sensitive data related to defense or security. If you look at the global medium, large amounts of geospatial data are now available on global platforms, which makes the regulation of data that is freely available in another country quite untenable.

Read also: Space Council should propose a revised PNT policy in a few months

The expected impact of the new policy:

Initially, the liberalization of geospatial data policies should lead to the implementation of the following changes:

  • Government agencies such as Survey of India (SoI) and ISRO that have investigated, collected and updated spatial data are now tasked with making the access process simpler and more transparent for Indian citizens, avoiding private permissions and data licensing using cloud technologies and open data. API in various formats. This will help move from the complex approval process that has been in place for so long, to self-certification and also self-identification.
  • All private and public entities and research institutes now have the right to collect, process, store, publish and share data in India and use it in Indian projects.
  • Uninterrupted access to the CORS network for any type of real-time positioning and data availability without any restriction.
  • All Indian private-public research institutes, regardless of their accuracy, will have access to mobile mapping, Street View survey and LIDAR sensor survey.
  • Spatial precision of 1 m for horizontal resolution spatial data and 3 m for vertical resolution spatial data will now be available without any prior approval in a recognized area.
  • All public digital paper maps can now have geospatial features, with the sole exception of labels in symbology to be restricted on secure areas.

With the liberalization of geospatial data, the government seeks to secure more players in the field and improve the competitiveness of Indian companies around the world With more precise data available for the government as well as for individuals – start-ups and companies can also use this data in setting up concerns related to e-commerce sectors or geospatial data-based applications. This of course also ends up improving employment in these sectors.

With an expected increase in public-private partnerships due to the opening up of the sector, data collection companies can work with the Indian government on various sector projects. It is hoped that the reform will enable Indians to use space projects in the global market, as ensuring a level playing field for Indian businesses with regard to the location mapping industry will help galvanize the economy, with further efficiency gains in agriculture and other related sectors. as well as.

Also Read: US National Space Policy 2020 Emphasizes Space Commerce, Strengthening PNT Services, and Interdepartmental Collaboration



Source link

]]>
https://templodoconhecimento.com/liberalization-of-geospatial-data-the-expected-impact-of-indias-new-geospatial-policy-guidelines-geospatial-world/feed/ 0
Digital advisory services for smallholder families in Africa and Asia https://templodoconhecimento.com/digital-advisory-services-for-smallholder-families-in-africa-and-asia/ https://templodoconhecimento.com/digital-advisory-services-for-smallholder-families-in-africa-and-asia/#respond Tue, 27 Apr 2021 20:06:40 +0000 https://templodoconhecimento.com/digital-advisory-services-for-smallholder-families-in-africa-and-asia/ PICTURE: Indian farmers receive training on the use of digital tools. view After Credit: © Grameen Foundation Smallholders produce two-thirds of all the food in the world. Yet the majority of these roughly 500 million farmers live in poverty. Their production is sensitive to the impacts of climate change. At the same time, they have […]]]>


PICTURE: Indian farmers receive training on the use of digital tools. view After

Credit: © Grameen Foundation

Smallholders produce two-thirds of all the food in the world. Yet the majority of these roughly 500 million farmers live in poverty. Their production is sensitive to the impacts of climate change. At the same time, they have limited access to information on farming practices that could help them increase their production, conserve resources and maintain their livelihoods.

Digitally supported agricultural extension services offer an opportunity to change this. To date, however, they have only reached a small fraction of smallholders in the South. One way to achieve significant gains in terms of yields and improve living conditions is to involve women and young people: they represent more than half of those engaged in agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia.

Target women and young people in particular

The “Agripath” project opens new avenues: “The aim of the project is to develop effective, efficient and large-scale counseling services which involve as many smallholder families as possible, in particular integrating women and young people” Says Sonja Vogt, Professor of Sustainable Social Development at the University of Bern: “To achieve this goal, we are developing technical innovations that promote changes in people’s attitudes and social norms related to agriculture.”

To enable the widest possible impact towards sustainable agriculture, explains Sonja Vogt, all family members must be involved. Therefore, it is essential to know who in the household has access to a mobile phone and therefore to digital services, as well as how farming decisions are made within the family. “In addition, we are particularly focused on the effective, country-specific and context-specific dissemination of sustainable farming methods among local communities,” says Nicole Harari, project coordinator at the Center for Development and Environment of the University of Bern.

Starting with five countries on two continents and expanding around the world

The project targets 50,000 smallholder families in Burkina Faso, Uganda, Tanzania, India and Nepal, as well as 250 private and public agricultural extension service providers. Scaling-up of results in at least six other countries is planned from the outset through an extensive network of partners including ministries of agriculture, NGOs, the private sector and regional and international organizations, thus enabling Agripath to have the broadest impact possible.

Lessons learned from Agripath will be made available in a toolkit for digital advisory service providers – both in countries where the project is active and worldwide. In addition, the project consortium will provide long-term implementation and application support to digital vendors. The Farmbetter application used and developed for this research will be available for download free of charge.

Combine on-site consultation and digital solutions

The project will also provide new information on the most promising type of counseling in which cases. Using a new ‘mixed methods’ approach, the project will combine digital data collection with field experiments and randomized controlled trials. This will allow studying the impacts of three variants on farmer behavior: a purely digital solution with an extension service app that farmers can use themselves; a model in which extension service providers use the app in their work with farmers; as well as a hybrid model in which smallholders can use digital advisory services themselves and, if necessary, have access to on-site technical extension services.

In addition, focus groups and extensive digital data collection to assess attitudes and behaviors will generate country-specific knowledge on gender and youth participation in sustainable agriculture. “It is at the heart of the contextual design and therefore of the acceptance of the digital extension tool”, emphasizes Nicole Harari.

Close collaboration between science and practice

Agripath is a project of the Center for Development and Environment (CDE) and the Institute of Sociology – both of the University of Bern – in collaboration with the Grameen Foundation USA, the Grameen Foundation India, the International Center for Physiology and ecology of insects icipe, as well as Farmbetter SA The Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) is supporting the project through the TRANSFORM program with 5 million Swiss francs. The project is based on close collaboration with the agricultural advisers of the Grameen Foundation and the start-up Farmbetter Ltd. This app provides application-oriented information on sustainable farming practices and promotes climate resilience and productivity of smallholder agriculture in developing countries. The project begins in 2021 and continues until 2025.

###

Warning: AAAS and EurekAlert! are not responsible for the accuracy of any press releases posted on EurekAlert! by contributing institutions or for the use of any information via the EurekAlert system.



Source link

]]>
https://templodoconhecimento.com/digital-advisory-services-for-smallholder-families-in-africa-and-asia/feed/ 0
Scientists urged to play role in fight against health disinformation campaigns https://templodoconhecimento.com/scientists-urged-to-play-role-in-fight-against-health-disinformation-campaigns/ https://templodoconhecimento.com/scientists-urged-to-play-role-in-fight-against-health-disinformation-campaigns/#respond Tue, 27 Apr 2021 18:01:38 +0000 https://templodoconhecimento.com/scientists-urged-to-play-role-in-fight-against-health-disinformation-campaigns/ ISLAMABAD: Science and Technology Minister Senator Shibli Faraz on Tuesday urged the Pakistan Academy of Sciences (PAS) and scientists in general to play their part in tackling disinformation campaigns related to public health and to global health security. Speaking at a webinar “Pandemic Preparedness: Science and Countermeasures” hosted by the Pakistan Academy of Sciences (PAS), […]]]>


ISLAMABAD: Science and Technology Minister Senator Shibli Faraz on Tuesday urged the Pakistan Academy of Sciences (PAS) and scientists in general to play their part in tackling disinformation campaigns related to public health and to global health security.

Speaking at a webinar “Pandemic Preparedness: Science and Countermeasures” hosted by the Pakistan Academy of Sciences (PAS), the minister said the abundance of unfiltered information makes it difficult for them. people identify true and reliable sources from false or misleading sources.

Pakistan faced different challenges compared to the developed world, because on the one hand we had to control the pandemic and on the other hand, we could not afford to shut down the country and leave people at the mercy of fate. .

In this situation, the government’s “smart lockdown” policy has worked successfully and has been appreciated internationally, he said.

Faraz appreciated different segments of society like religious leaders, academics and philanthropists for helping us deal with the situation.

He stressed that the design, development, manufacture and distribution of vaccines were among the most pressing issues in preparing for the global response to a pandemic.

The response to this pandemic has shown that when major vaccine manufacturers are fully engaged in a global response, it may be possible for them to manufacture substantial doses of vaccine on schedule faster than expected.

It is heartwarming that even Africa has plans to increase its vaccine production capacity from 1 percent to 60 percent by 2040, he said.

He assured that the Ministry of Science and Technology would welcome any such effort in the country.

“I am sure that through events like this we will learn a great deal about the policies, technologies and financing strategies used to have better diagnostic techniques and to produce Covid-19 vaccines.”

“These lessons will be essential in informing the global manufacture of emergency vaccines; diagnosis and therapeutic efforts in the future, ”he said.

Speaking on this occasion, the PAS President, Professor Khalid Mahmood Khan, appreciated the efforts of the Association of the Asian Academy of Sciences (AASSA) to support the group in the organization of the event. .

He said Pakistan, as a responsible nation, was doing everything possible to prevent the spread of this virus.

AASSA Professor Yoo Hang Kim reiterated his support for PAS for holding such an event and fighting the coronavirus and Pakistan is mentioned as an achievement in the world to reduce the lethal effect compared to its neighboring countries.

Professor Khairul Anuar bin Abdullah underlined the problems related to vaccines and their equitable access for all, including the least developed countries.

PAS Secretary General Professor Tasawar Hayat thanked all speakers and participants for their contributions and announced that the PAS will issue a special issue on the proceedings of the workshop and a policy document on how to respond to avoid such a pandemic in the future.

Speaking on the occasion, Professor Zabta Khan Shinwari said that what emerges will depend in part on the ongoing evolution of SARS-CoV-2, the behavior of citizens and the decisions of governments on how to respond to the pandemic.

It will also depend on advancements in vaccine development and treatments, as well as in a wider range of science and humanities disciplines that aim both to end this pandemic and to learn how to reduce the impacts of future ones. zoonoses, and with which the international community can unite in its efforts to control Covid-19.

Many factors will determine the overall outcome of the pandemic. A nationalist rather than global approach to vaccine administration is not only morally reprehensible, but will also delay any return to a level of ‘normalcy’ (including relaxed border controls) as no country can be safe as all. countries are not, he stressed.



Source link

]]>
https://templodoconhecimento.com/scientists-urged-to-play-role-in-fight-against-health-disinformation-campaigns/feed/ 0
Alion receives $ 292 million order for the advancement of Integrated Persistent Expeditionary Surveillance (AIPES) and Force Protection Systems (FPS) for the Force Protection Division (HBU) of the Air Force Life Cycle (AFLCMC) and Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC Crane) Division) https://templodoconhecimento.com/alion-receives-292-million-order-for-the-advancement-of-integrated-persistent-expeditionary-surveillance-aipes-and-force-protection-systems-fps-for-the-force-protection-division-hbu-of-the-air/ https://templodoconhecimento.com/alion-receives-292-million-order-for-the-advancement-of-integrated-persistent-expeditionary-surveillance-aipes-and-force-protection-systems-fps-for-the-force-protection-division-hbu-of-the-air/#respond Tue, 27 Apr 2021 17:45:00 +0000 WASHINGTON, April 27, 2021 / PRNewswire / – Alion Science and Technology Announces Receipt of $ 292 million Mission Order with a 60-month execution period for the advancement of Integrated Persistent Expeditionary Surveillance (AIPES) and Force Protection Systems (FPS) for the Force Protection Division (HBU) of the Center Air Force Life Cycle Management Unit (AFLCMC) […]]]>


WASHINGTON, April 27, 2021 / PRNewswire / – Alion Science and Technology Announces Receipt of $ 292 million Mission Order with a 60-month execution period for the advancement of Integrated Persistent Expeditionary Surveillance (AIPES) and Force Protection Systems (FPS) for the Force Protection Division (HBU) of the Center Air Force Life Cycle Management Unit (AFLCMC) and the Naval Surface Warfare Center Division crane (NSWC crane). This task order includes the RTD & E of emerging technologies, materials and manufacturing processes to dramatically improve the functionality and capacity of existing and future intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) and FP systems for AFLCMC Force Protection Division, NSWC Crane and their strategic partners. . Alion was awarded this contract as part of the Department of Defense Information Analysis Center (DoD IAC) Multi-Award Contract (MAC) vehicle. These DoD IAC MAC (TO) work orders are assigned by the 774th Enterprise Sourcing Squadron of the US Air Force to develop and create new knowledge for the improvement of the DTIC repository and the research and development (R&D) community and of science and technology (S&T).

“Alion’s vast expertise in integration of sensors, sensor dataand command and control systems (C2) cover multiple force protection platforms and technologies which provide full situational awareness for forward base operations, ”said Alan dietrich, Senior Vice President of Alion and General Manager of the Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) group. “The provision of advanced technologies enables DOD customers to achieve and maintain a modernized force protection capability. Alion will continue to provide innovative technologies and advanced tools that combatants need to acquire and maintain full readiness. on the battlefield. “

Work under this task order will incorporate advanced technologies into existing and future ISR and FP systems, subsystems and components to improve the performance of legacy systems through technology insertion and rapid prototyping. resulting modified systems. Alion will provide advanced R&D studies to change the way legacy and new systems are supported. In addition, the work will include total life cycle management encompassing all the logistical elements necessary to meet operational demands. To operate successfully in changing environments, systems must operate reliably in the field for longer durations, with minimal levels of logistical support and without frequent access to the supply chain. At the same time, systems must remain affordable, mobile and easily scalable. To increase system reliability while reducing system cost, Alion will conduct technology assessments to identify critical enabling technologies in key areas of hardware, manufacturing and testing to determine their suitability for specific applications. This includes research and development of new technical approaches and opportunities for technology transfer and technology integration.

ABOUT THE DOD IAC PROGRAM

The DoD IAC program operates as part of the Defense Technical Information Center and provides technical data management and research support to DoD and federal government users. Established in the 1940s, the IAC program serves the science and technology (S&T) and acquisition communities of the DoD, stimulating innovation and technological developments by enhancing collaboration through the integrated development and dissemination of scientific information. and techniques for DoD and the broader S&T community.

ABOUT ALION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION

Solving some of our nation’s most complex national security challenges, Alion works alongside our defense and intelligence communities as we design and deliver advanced engineering solutions to meet current and future demands. We go beyond the superficial and delve deep into the root of the intricacies of engineering and bring innovation to reality. With global industry expertise in Big Data, Analytics and Cybersecurity; Artificial intelligence and machine learning; Live, virtual and constructive solutions; Electronic warfare and C5ISR; and rapid prototyping and manufacturing, Alion ensures mission success where and when it matters most. To learn more, visit www.alionscience.com.

Warning. “This material is based on work supported by the DoD Information Analysis Center (DoD IAC PMO) Program Management Office, sponsored by the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) under Contract # FA807518D0002.”

Public distribution authorized, distribution unlimited. “All opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the 774th Enterprise Sourcing Squadron (774 ESS).”

SOURCE Alion Science and Technology Corporation

Related links

http://www.alionscience.com



Source link

]]>
https://templodoconhecimento.com/alion-receives-292-million-order-for-the-advancement-of-integrated-persistent-expeditionary-surveillance-aipes-and-force-protection-systems-fps-for-the-force-protection-division-hbu-of-the-air/feed/ 0
Paulius Stankevicius joins the private practice of His Highness Sheikh Ahmed Bin Faisal Al Qassimi as Director of International Affairs and Public Relations https://templodoconhecimento.com/paulius-stankevicius-joins-the-private-practice-of-his-highness-sheikh-ahmed-bin-faisal-al-qassimi-as-director-of-international-affairs-and-public-relations/ https://templodoconhecimento.com/paulius-stankevicius-joins-the-private-practice-of-his-highness-sheikh-ahmed-bin-faisal-al-qassimi-as-director-of-international-affairs-and-public-relations/#respond Tue, 27 Apr 2021 14:51:23 +0000 https://templodoconhecimento.com/paulius-stankevicius-joins-the-private-practice-of-his-highness-sheikh-ahmed-bin-faisal-al-qassimi-as-director-of-international-affairs-and-public-relations/ France 24 Andrew Brown autopsy shows he was shot in the back of the head by US police, lawyers say Lawyers for the family of a black man gunned down by sheriff’s deputies last week in North Carolina said a private autopsy showed he died from a “gunshot” in the back of head, and the […]]]>


France 24

Andrew Brown autopsy shows he was shot in the back of the head by US police, lawyers say

Lawyers for the family of a black man gunned down by sheriff’s deputies last week in North Carolina said a private autopsy showed he died from a “gunshot” in the back of head, and the FBI on Tuesday opened an investigation into the filming’s civil rights. Andrew Brown Jr., 42, was hit by four bullets in his right arm before the fatal blow penetrated the back of his skull as he tried to escape, lawyers for his relatives said during a press conference in Elizabeth City, a waterfront community near the Pasquotank County Sheriff Tommy Wooten said last week in a video-recorded statement that his deputies were trying to issue Brown with search and search warrants arrest stemming from a drug charge and the incident was completed in less than 30 years. In the same video, Chief Assistant Daniel Fogg described Brown as a convicted felon whose “history of resistance to drug abuse. ‘arrest’ posed what he called a ‘high risk of danger’ to the deputies facing him. Wooten urged the public to avoid rushing towards him. judgment while the case is under review by the State Bureau of Investigation, which has opened an investigation at the sheriff’s request. He admitted that police video of the shooting exists, but none of it has bee seen by the public. Family attorneys said the footage was captured by at least nine cameras and Brown’s relatives saw a 20-second clip in private on Monday. Seven MPs involved in the incident were placed on administrative leave, said the Wooten office said last week. According to lawyers for Brown’s family, two of those MPs have since resigned and one has retired. ‘Trying to avoid being shot’ An official autopsy has yet to be released, although the death certificate indicated Brown had died from a bullet to the head. “It was a gunshot to the back of the head,” said attorney Ben Crump, citing the private autopsy conducted by Brent Hall, a former medical examiner in Boone, North Carolina. “He entered the base of the neck, the lower part of the skull and got lost in his brain. It was the cause of death.” Co-counsel Wayne Kendall said the first four shots that hit Brown, all in his right arm, were shot through his front windshield, prompting him to put the vehicle in reverse, to do turn around and “do a spin on a wasteland.” “At that point he was hit in the back of the head” and the vehicle crashed into a tree “as he was leaving the site trying to avoid being shot,” Kendall said . Shortly after the press conference, the FBI’s Charlotte field office said it had opened a civil rights investigation separate from the state investigation into the shooting, to “determine whether federal laws were raped. “Crump praised the FBI’s investigation, saying in a statement that footage of the shooting seen by family members shows Brown was” shot by a fiery, modern lynch mob. ” Roy Cooper later called for an appointment with a special prosecutor to take over the inv estigation. Otherwise, it will be overseen by the local district attorney, who has the discretion to keep the case, hand it over to another prosecutor, or refer it to the state attorney general for referral to a special prosecutor. . Officer Derek Chauvin was convicted of the murder of George Floyd in a nationally watched trial that shed light on police violence against blacks across the United States. on Elizabeth City, of which about half of the 18,000 residents are black. Dozens of protesters gathered peacefully on Tuesday evening at a downtown intersection near the sheriff’s office as curfew approached. Police in the patrol cars broadcast a loudspeaker warning urging the crowd to disperse and warning that anyone still in the street after 8 p.m. would be likely to be arrested. the crowd had moved away from itself. Lawyers denounced his murder as an “execution” and accused authorities of not disclosing video evidence to the public. Wooten said his office is seeking court approval to release the video. A court hearing was scheduled for Wednesday on whether the body camera footage can be disclosed to media organizations. A 2016 state law generally prohibits police footage from being shown to anyone other than persons seen or heard in the images, or to a family member, lawyer or other personal representative of such a person. Court order needed for further release Lawmakers in democratic states are pushing for passage of legislation requiring the release of body and dash cam images within 48 hours if anyone requests it , unless a law enforcement agency obtains a court order to restrict access. (REUTERS)



Source link

]]>
https://templodoconhecimento.com/paulius-stankevicius-joins-the-private-practice-of-his-highness-sheikh-ahmed-bin-faisal-al-qassimi-as-director-of-international-affairs-and-public-relations/feed/ 0
Modification of the human genome: conversations between science and society are needed https://templodoconhecimento.com/modification-of-the-human-genome-conversations-between-science-and-society-are-needed/ https://templodoconhecimento.com/modification-of-the-human-genome-conversations-between-science-and-society-are-needed/#respond Tue, 27 Apr 2021 10:32:33 +0000 https://templodoconhecimento.com/modification-of-the-human-genome-conversations-between-science-and-society-are-needed/ In October 2020, Jennifer Doudna and Emmanuelle Charpentier received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their discovery of an adaptable and easy way to edit genomes, known as CRISPR, which transformed the world of genetic engineering. CRISPR has been used to fight lung cancer and correct the mutation that causes sickle cell disease in stem […]]]>


In October 2020, Jennifer Doudna and Emmanuelle Charpentier received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their discovery of an adaptable and easy way to edit genomes, known as CRISPR, which transformed the world of genetic engineering.

CRISPR has been used to fight lung cancer and correct the mutation that causes sickle cell disease in stem cells. But the technology was also used by a Chinese scientist to covertly and illegally alter the genomes of twin daughters – the very first inherited human germline mutation made through genetic engineering.

“We have moved away from an era of science where we understood the risks associated with new technologies and where the decision-making stakes were quite low,” says Dietram Scheufele, professor of life sciences communication at the University of Wisconsin. Madison.

Today, say Scheufele and his colleagues, we are in a world where new technologies have very immediate and sometimes unpredictable but significant impacts on society. In an article published the week of April 26 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, researchers say such cutting-edge technology, especially CRISPR, requires more solid and thoughtful public engagement if it is to be harnessed for profit. of the public without going through ethics. lines.

The authors claim that being thoughtful and transparent about public engagement goals and using evidence from the social sciences can help facilitate the difficult conversations society must have on scientific issues like CRISPR and their societal implications. Effective public engagement, in turn, lays the foundation for public ownership of the progress that comes from CRISPR.

Professor Dominique Brossard and graduate student Nicole Krause, in collaboration with Isabelle Freiling, research assistant at the University of Vienna, co-authored the report with Scheufele. The article stems from a 2019 colloquium of the National Academy of Sciences on CRISPR.

The researchers say such cutting-edge technology, especially CRISPR, requires more solid and thoughtful public engagement if it is to be harnessed for public benefit without crossing ethical boundaries.

Since 2012, when the CRISPR system was first described, scientists have understood both its genetic engineering potential and the need for public engagement to discuss possible uses of the technology. Many scientists wanted to avoid rehashing the controversies surrounding genetically modified organisms, which have been harshly criticized as unnatural and unnecessary by some activists despite widespread scientific support for their use.

Yet, says Krause, some scientists who have supported the use of CRISPR have started by wrongly repeating the public engagement methods used for GMOs, which “assumes people just need more knowledge, more knowledge. ‘an ability to understand science’. Instead, Krause adds, “Solutions that focus on tailoring communications to people’s values ​​would make more sense.”

This values-based public engagement strategy is supported by social science research on how people form and change their views on new technologies. Some methods of public engagement engage value systems and encourage thoughtful conversation, more than others.

For example, what researchers call “public participation” and “public collaboration” are two-way communication methods involving the joint exchange of information and values ​​and the identification and design of science-based decisions that adhere to these values. This contrasts with “public communication”, which focuses only on the dissemination of scientific information.

This values-based public engagement strategy is supported by social science research on how people form and change their views on new technologies.

Scheufele and his colleagues say such collaborative approaches could help scientists broaden the representation of voices in debates around science to often overlooked groups, such as people with disabilities or racial minorities.

“As a scientific community, we do not have a long experience of an effective engagement mechanism with these communities,” says Scheufele. This inability to reach larger groups stems in part from low participation rates at most science engagement events, which also attract highly selective audiences.

Another challenge is to reward scientists for their public engagement. “There is very little incentive in academia to do this kind of work,” says Scheufele.

A recent report by Brossard and others found that the majority of land grant professors felt public engagement was very important, but believed it was less important to their colleagues. This gap suggests that scientists believe their engagement efforts will not be rewarded by their peers, Brossard says.

Now Brossard, Krause, Scheufele and their colleagues have a grant from the National Science Foundation to research how to depolarize the debates around CRISPR. Previous studies suggest that holding people accountable for their positions helps them think more critically about their underlying reasoning. And when social scientists emphasize the inherent complexity of people’s values, it helps people view controversial issues with more nuance.

But involving a diverse society with pluralistic value systems in deliberations on the latest technology will never be easy.

“The policy-making process involves more than just science. Science will inform how we regulate technology, as will religious, political, ethical, regulatory and economic considerations, ”says Scheufele. “And so, the ability to truly engage in this much larger framework where we significantly contribute and guide the debate with the best available science is a major challenge.”

This article was republished from the following materials. Note: The material may have been modified for its length and content. For more information, please contact the cited source.



Source link

]]>
https://templodoconhecimento.com/modification-of-the-human-genome-conversations-between-science-and-society-are-needed/feed/ 0
QAnon, the spread of disinformation and conspiracy-based radicalization – Homeland Security Today https://templodoconhecimento.com/qanon-the-spread-of-disinformation-and-conspiracy-based-radicalization-homeland-security-today/ https://templodoconhecimento.com/qanon-the-spread-of-disinformation-and-conspiracy-based-radicalization-homeland-security-today/#respond Tue, 27 Apr 2021 03:30:27 +0000 https://templodoconhecimento.com/qanon-the-spread-of-disinformation-and-conspiracy-based-radicalization-homeland-security-today/ QAnon’s conspiracy theory alleges that a cabal of Satan-worshiping pedophile politicians control the United States. government.[i] While QAnon gained significant media coverage in the recent elections, the movement has actually been around for almost four years, with the first QAnon post taking place on October 28, 2017.[ii] QAnon adherents believe that “Q” is an individual […]]]>


QAnon’s conspiracy theory alleges that a cabal of Satan-worshiping pedophile politicians control the United States. government.[i] While QAnon gained significant media coverage in the recent elections, the movement has actually been around for almost four years, with the first QAnon post taking place on October 28, 2017.[ii] QAnon adherents believe that “Q” is an individual or group of senior military and intelligence officials who are in direct communication with former President Donald Trump. This notion allowed QAnon to attract support at exponential rates, especially ahead of the election, due to the legitimacy and relevance of this false claim.

QAnon relies on the use of anonymous online messages known as “Q Drops” to spread disinformation. These anonymous messages are the very essence of how Patrons felt they were receiving information directly from Q. Q Drops are often first posted on 4chan or 8kun and would generally claim that Q knew about some type of government information. The “Q” drops often foreshadowed a future event dedicated to dismantling the so-called Deep State cabal. Ahead of the 2020 US Presidential Election, QAnon maintained a consistent online presence through Q drops and social media; however, there has not been a further drop in Q since December 8, 2020.

A recent study published in the Journal for Deradicalization, “QAnon conspiracy theory: examination of its evolution and the mechanisms of radicalization”, sought to examine how disinformation disseminated online has been one of the main drivers of conspiracy-based radicalization.[iii] This study analyzed the evolution, ideologies and paradigms associated with supporters of QAnon to understand the most influential mechanism of modern conspiracy-based radicalization. This study also analyzed the global spread of QAnon by tracking the growth of disinformation related to QAnon over time. The study acknowledges that there is currently a lack of research examining the correlation between conspiracy theories and offline violence.

The main findings of the study supported claims that QAnon’s activity increased significantly before the election. The study used a software-as-a-service tool designed by French company Storyzy to track the volume of articles published about QAnon over time. From July 1, 2019 to March 1, 2020, there were 4,207 articles published around the world that dealt with the QAnon Conspiracy to some extent. However, in the eight months leading up to the March 1, 2020 – November 1, 2020 elections, a total of 39,692 articles were published regarding QAnon. This is an 843.4% increase of articles from both trusted sources and misinformation sources discussing QAnon compared to the previous eight month period. This suggests both increasing public awareness and an increase in reporting by reliable sources, as well as an increase in disinformation.

Looking specifically at the disinformation articles, the authors found that disinformation spread at a considerably constant rate until the early months of 2020. There were approximately 17,152 disinformation articles shared regarding QAnon from October 28, 2017 to October 1, 2017. November 2020. However, 8,032 of these articles have been published since March 1, 2020. This represents almost half (46.8%) of all disinformation articles on QAnon disseminated in the 8 months leading up to the election, despite the ‘existence of QAnon for over three years. This is an alarming leap in the creation and spread of disinformation in a relatively short period of time.

The type of disinformation disseminated regarding QAnon is best described as content fabricated with the intention of deceiving viewers in order to create distrust of the government. The Storyzy platform was able to rank the 10 most cited sources of QAnon disinformation – those online news hubs that were most often cited or used as the source for another article. The analysis found that Russia-based rt.com was the most cited source at the time of the study. Five of the 10 most cited sources are classified as far-right sources of information. These are westernjournal.com, thegatewaypundit.com, breitbart.com, pjmedia.com and thefederationist.com. These sites have a great influence on a much larger network of sources of disinformation and streams of disinformation online. In addition, the network of sources of disinformation is well interconnected and includes sources based in the United States and abroad.

The study authors also analyzed social media analysis of QAnon disinformation online. Figure 3 shows the social media analysis of 9,920 articles published on QAnon from March 1, 2020 to November 1, 2020. The circular network visualizes how sources are cited and connected to other sources. Green nodes (endpoints) represent trusted sources and red nodes represent sources of disinformation ranked by Storyzy. Nodes grow larger depending on how often they are cited by other sources. The color of the edge is determined by whether the cited source is a trusted source (green edge) or a source of misinformation (red edge). The main benefit of social media analysis is the significant red-red connectivity, which is pulled from the network in the image on the left. This red to red network represents 4,985 disinformation articles shared and cited by other disinformation articles.

Most of the biggest red knots are the sources in the top 10 most cited list in the previous figure. For example, three of the sites mentioned on the list – thegatewaypundit.com, rightwingwatch.org, and westernjournal.com – are at the top of the network. These sources have several bidirectional edges extending outward, illustrating the number of sources they can influence. Social media analysis highlights the range of sources of disinformation available online, including independent websites, blogs and information centers. The significant connectivity and spread of disinformation linked to QAnon threatens the legitimacy of real news institutions, real news, and democratic institutions that fight conspiracy and violent extremist radicalization.

In addition to the fact that these sources are highly connected, the disinformation articles they produce are often redistributed on social media. In particular, Telegram is a popular app for spreading violent extremist and conspiratorial rhetoric. The study authors used the QAnon-focused Telegram channels to understand the vastness of the next QAnon. They found 36 Telegram channels focused on spreading QAnon disinformation and propaganda, with a strong international presence. There were at least 11 countries represented, including the United States, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Germany – especially the region of Bavaria – France, Austria, Brazil, Argentina and the United Kingdom. Many of these channels had thousands of subscribers, with an international channel called “Qlobal-Change” growing from 137,006 subscribers to 164,857 subscribers from November 2020 to February 2021.

Traffic analysis of a popular QAnon 8kun sign also showed evidence of the movement’s global appeal. The authors found that outbound traffic from the 8kun card connects to US-based sources 70.4% of the time, while inbound link traffic only comes from the US 47.3% of the time. This suggests that there are sources broadcast around the world that bring users to the 8kun bulletin board, perhaps through social media channels such as Telegram that draw an international audience. Popular inbound link locations including France, UK, and Australia, in addition to the following US-based sites. However, the 8kun bulletin board itself often links users to news sources disseminated by US sources. This suggests that QAnon sites have gained an international audience, but US-based sources of disinformation continue to be an important part of QAnon’s global growth.

The digital environment has served as the primary vehicle for the rapid dissemination of QAnon-related content that has resulted in violence in nearly 23 cases, including the January 6 Capitol uprising. This tangible effect of QAnon underscores the high levels of risk conspiracy theories pose in the modern age in conjunction with the internet. QAnon has shown no concrete signs of slowing down and continues to engage in new lines of conspiratorial thinking to attract followers. Intervention should take the form of a multi-level approach, emphasizing the role of friends, family and community in countering conspiratorial narratives. In addition, social media policies and content removal need to be reassessed to deal with the threat from a holistic and practical perspective. While conspiracy-based radicalization has been under-studied, the dangers that can arise have been shown to evolve into real-time international security concerns that should not be overlooked.

The views expressed here are those of the author and are not necessarily endorsed by Homeland Security Today, which welcomes a wide range of views in favor of securing our homeland. To submit an article for review, send an email [email protected] Our editorial guidelines can be found here.

The references
[i] Zadrozny, B. and Collins, B. (August 14, 2018). QAnon explained: The anti-Semitic conspiracy theory is gaining ground around the world. NBC News. Retrieved on December 5, 2020 from https://www.nbcnews.com/tech/tech-news/how-three-conspiracy-theorists-took-q-sparked-qanonn900531.
[ii] Drops of intelligence. (2017, October 28). Alerts Q. Retrieved December 5, 2020 from https://qalerts.app/?sortasc=1.
[iii] The author’s original study can be viewed here: Garry, A., Walther, S., Mohamed R., & Mohammed, A. (2021). QAnon conspiracy theory: examining its evolution and the mechanisms of radicalization. Journal for deradicalization, https://journals.sfu.ca/jd/index.php/jd/article/view/437/265

(Visited 268 times, 263 visits today)



Source link

]]>
https://templodoconhecimento.com/qanon-the-spread-of-disinformation-and-conspiracy-based-radicalization-homeland-security-today/feed/ 0
Two Los Alamos National Laboratory researchers named fellows by the American Statistical Association – Los Alamos Reporter https://templodoconhecimento.com/two-los-alamos-national-laboratory-researchers-named-fellows-by-the-american-statistical-association-los-alamos-reporter/ https://templodoconhecimento.com/two-los-alamos-national-laboratory-researchers-named-fellows-by-the-american-statistical-association-los-alamos-reporter/#respond Tue, 27 Apr 2021 01:12:39 +0000 https://templodoconhecimento.com/two-los-alamos-national-laboratory-researchers-named-fellows-by-the-american-statistical-association-los-alamos-reporter/ James Wendelberger, left, and Earl Lawrence have been named Fellows by the American Statistical Association. Photo courtesy of LANL LANL NEWS Los Alamos National Laboratory researchers Earl Lawrence and James Wendelberger, both from the laboratory’s statistical sciences group, have been named Fellows by the American Statistical Association (ASA). “I am delighted to see Earl and […]]]>


James Wendelberger, left, and Earl Lawrence have been named Fellows by the American Statistical Association. Photo courtesy of LANL

LANL NEWS

Los Alamos National Laboratory researchers Earl Lawrence and James Wendelberger, both from the laboratory’s statistical sciences group, have been named Fellows by the American Statistical Association (ASA).

“I am delighted to see Earl and James recognized by the American Statistical Association and congratulate them both,” said Irene Qualters, associate director of the simulation and computation laboratory. “Less than one percent of ASA members are elected as fellows, and this honor reflects their contributions to the field of statistical science. Peer recognition is an important aspect of science and no one is more deserving than Earl and James. ”

Lawrence was selected “for innovative methodological development, advancement of statistical methods in challenges of high importance in science and national security, outstanding service to the statistical profession, and mentoring the next generation of statistician.” Wendelberger was selected “for his lasting impact on statistical applications in business, industry and government, the dissemination of statistical knowledge to various audiences, and service to the American Statistical Association as a leader of several sections. and chapters. “

The newly elected fellows will be recognized at the Joint Statistical Meetings in Seattle in August.

About the fellows
Earl Lawrence works on data analysis problems of all types, in particular problems that build statistical models around simulations performed on massive supercomputers. This work consists in adapting statistical spatio-temporal models to the output of series of simulations, then in comparing these models with physical data in order to estimate the uncertainty of the inputs and outputs of the simulation.

Lawrence completed his doctorate. in Statistics from the University of Michigan in 2005. He has since been a member of the Los Alamos Statistical Sciences Group. During this time, he worked with collaborators in fields such as cosmology, nuclear theory, space weather, materials science, infrastructure networks, Martian geology, and nuclear weapons. In 2020, he becomes the group leader of statistical sciences.

James wendelberger Joined the Laboratory in 2013 as a scientist in the Responsibility and Control of Nuclear Materials group, where he contributed to nuclear material accounting. In 2016, he joined the Statistical Sciences group, where he works on a wide range of interdisciplinary surveys, including the sampling of underground waste reservoirs, plutonium batteries for space applications and the reprocessing of nuclear material in pellets can be stored safely.

Wendelberger obtained his doctorate. in Statistics in 1982 with a minor in Mathematics from the University of Wisconsin – Madison, where he also received his Masters in Statistics and BA Honors, majoring in Mathematics and Physics. Wendelberger is an American Statistical Association PSTAT Accredited Professional Statistician.

About ASA Fellows
The designation of ASA Fellow has been an important honor for nearly 100 years. Under the statutes of the ASA, the Fellows Committee may elect up to one-third of one percent of the total membership of the association as fellows each year.

To be selected, applicants must have an established reputation and have made outstanding contributions to statistical science. The Fellows Committee assesses the contributions of each candidate to the advancement of statistical science and gives due consideration to the following:

• Published works

• Position held with the employer

• ASA activities

• Membership and achievements in other societies

• Professional activities

Learn more about ASA here.

About the Los Alamos National Laboratory (www.lanl.gov)

Los Alamos National Laboratory, a multidisciplinary research institution engaged in strategic science in the name of national security, is managed by Triad, a public service-oriented national security science organization owned equally by its three founding members: Battelle Memorial Institute (Battelle), Texas A&M University System (TAMUS) and the University of California (UC) regents for the National Nuclear Security Administration of the Department of Energy.

Los Alamos strengthens national security by ensuring the safety and reliability of the US nuclear stockpile, developing technologies to reduce threats from weapons of mass destruction, and solving energy, environmental and infrastructure issues. , health and global security issues.

Reply



Source link

]]>
https://templodoconhecimento.com/two-los-alamos-national-laboratory-researchers-named-fellows-by-the-american-statistical-association-los-alamos-reporter/feed/ 0
Editing the human genome requires difficult conversations between science and society https://templodoconhecimento.com/editing-the-human-genome-requires-difficult-conversations-between-science-and-society/ https://templodoconhecimento.com/editing-the-human-genome-requires-difficult-conversations-between-science-and-society/#respond Mon, 26 Apr 2021 19:10:03 +0000 https://templodoconhecimento.com/editing-the-human-genome-requires-difficult-conversations-between-science-and-society/ In October 2020, Jennifer Doudna and Emmanuelle Charpentier received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their discovery of an adaptable and easy way to edit genomes, known as CRISPR, which transformed the world of genetic engineering. CRISPR has been used to fight lung cancer and correct the mutation that causes sickle cell disease in stem […]]]>


In October 2020, Jennifer Doudna and Emmanuelle Charpentier received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their discovery of an adaptable and easy way to edit genomes, known as CRISPR, which transformed the world of genetic engineering.

CRISPR has been used to fight lung cancer and correct the mutation that causes sickle cell disease in stem cells. But the technology was also used by a Chinese scientist to covertly and illegally alter the genomes of twin daughters – the very first inherited human germline mutation made through genetic engineering.

“We have moved away from an era of science where we understood the risks associated with new technologies and where the decision-making stakes were quite low,” says Dietram Scheufele, professor of life sciences communication at the University of Wisconsin. Madison.

Today, say Scheufele and his colleagues, we are in a world where new technologies have very immediate and sometimes unpredictable but significant impacts on society. In an article published the week of April 26 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, researchers say such cutting-edge technology, especially CRISPR, requires more solid and thoughtful public engagement if it is to be harnessed for profit. of the public without going through ethics. lines.

The authors claim that being thoughtful and transparent about public engagement goals and using evidence from the social sciences can help facilitate the difficult conversations society must have on scientific issues like CRISPR and their societal implications. Effective public engagement, in turn, lays the foundation for public ownership of the progress that comes from CRISPR.

Professor Dominique Brossard and graduate student Nicole Krause, in collaboration with Isabelle Freiling, research assistant at the University of Vienna, co-authored the report with Scheufele. The article stems from a 2019 colloquium of the National Academy of Sciences on CRISPR.

The researchers say such cutting-edge technology, especially CRISPR, requires more solid and thoughtful public engagement if it is to be harnessed for public benefit without crossing ethical boundaries.

Since 2012, when the CRISPR system was first described, scientists have understood both its genetic engineering potential and the need for public engagement to discuss possible uses of the technology. Many scientists wanted to avoid rehashing the controversies surrounding genetically modified organisms, which have been harshly criticized as unnatural and unnecessary by some activists despite widespread scientific support for their use.

Yet, says Krause, some scientists who have supported the use of CRISPR have started by wrongly repeating the public engagement methods used for GMOs, which “assumes people just need more knowledge, more knowledge. ‘an ability to understand science’. Instead, Krause adds, “Solutions that focus on tailoring communications to people’s values ​​would make more sense.”

This values-based public engagement strategy is supported by social science research on how people form and change their views on new technologies. Some methods of public engagement engage value systems and encourage thoughtful conversation, more than others.

For example, what researchers call “public participation” and “public collaboration” are two-way communication methods involving the joint exchange of information and values ​​and the identification and design of science-based decisions that adhere to these values. This contrasts with “public communication”, which focuses only on the dissemination of scientific information.

This values-based public engagement strategy is supported by social science research on how people form and change their views on new technologies.

Scheufele and his colleagues say such collaborative approaches could help scientists broaden the representation of voices in debates around science to often overlooked groups, such as people with disabilities or racial minorities.

“As a scientific community, we do not have a long experience of an effective engagement mechanism with these communities,” says Scheufele. This inability to reach larger groups stems in part from low participation rates at most science engagement events, which also attract highly selective audiences.

Another challenge is to reward scientists for their public engagement. “There is very little incentive in academia to do this kind of work,” says Scheufele.

A recent report from Brossard et al. Found that the majority of professors who grant land felt public engagement was very important, but believed it was less important to their colleagues. This gap suggests that scientists believe their engagement efforts will not be rewarded by their peers, Brossard says.

Now Brossard, Krause, Scheufele and their colleagues have a grant from the National Science Foundation to research how to depolarize the debates around CRISPR. Previous studies suggest that holding people accountable for their positions helps them think more critically about their underlying reasoning. And when social scientists emphasize the inherent complexity of people’s values, it helps people view controversial issues with more nuance.

But involving a diverse society with pluralistic value systems in deliberations on the latest technology will never be easy.

“The policy-making process involves more than just science. Science will inform how we regulate technology, as will religious, political, ethical, regulatory and economic considerations, ”says Scheufele. “And so, the ability to truly engage in this much larger framework where we significantly contribute and guide the debate with the best available science is a major challenge.”

This work was supported by the National Science Foundation (grant SES-1827864).



Source link

]]>
https://templodoconhecimento.com/editing-the-human-genome-requires-difficult-conversations-between-science-and-society/feed/ 0