Scientific context – Templo Do Conhecimento Fri, 24 Jun 2022 20:05:29 +0000 en-US hourly 1 Scientific context – Templo Do Conhecimento 32 32 Trench fever that plagued Tolkien, CS Lewis could be prevented: scientists Fri, 24 Jun 2022 19:54:37 +0000

The discovery of a special antibody could help prevent dangerous bacterial infections such as trench fever, whose victims included famous authors like JRR Tolkien and CS Lewis.

Trench fever, or five-day fever, is transmitted by body lice.

An estimated 20-30% of British troops in World War I reported being sick with trench fever, including not only the Lord of the Rings the author Tolkien and The Chronicles of Narnia the writer Lewis, but also AA Milne, the creator of Winnie the Pooh.

Symptoms include high fever, severe headache and leg pain.

Bartonella bacteria (green) are seen after invading red blood cells (red).
Biozentrum, Basel/Zenger University

Today, trench fever persists among injection drug users and the homeless. Outbreaks of trench fever have been documented in the United States, France, and Burundi.

Today, a team of molecular and biomedical research experts from the University of Basel in Switzerland have detected neutralizing antibodies that stop or even prevent bacterial infections.

A research group led by Professors Christoph Dehio and Daniel Pinschewer studied the response of the immune system to Bartonella infection in a mouse model.

Bartonella are bacteria that are transmitted from blood-sucking insects to mammals, including humans. After entering red blood cells, they cause various symptoms, including trench fever and Carrion’s disease.

Carrion’s disease can cause fever, jaundice, enlarged lymph nodes, skin rashes, and ulcerative lesions.

Basel experts have discovered antibodies that stop the infection process only by binding to the bacteria.

“Such neutralizing antibodies have already been described mainly in the context of viral infections,” said Lena Siewert from the Department of Biomedicine at the University of Basel and lead author of the study.

“Until now, we didn’t know that neutralizing antibodies could also control the bacterial infection process.”

Experts have managed to artificially produce these antibodies and show how they attack the bacteria.

Siewert explained: “The antibody binds to a specific protein, a so-called autotransporter. These are found on the surface of bacterial cells and are vital for the bacteria.”

Antibodies prevent pathogens from attaching to and invading intestinal cells. This mechanism stops the infection.

Blood-sucking insects no longer ingest pathogens with their blood meal. They also cannot pass them on to a new host.

Siewert pointed out that the antibodies proved effective when injected before but also during a Bartonella infection.

She said: “In both cases, the antibodies were able to exert their full effect. Prophylactic administration completely prevented an infection, while therapeutic administration eliminated the bacteria present.”

Professor Christoph Dehio in Basel
Professor Christoph Dehio, whose team at the Biozentrum at the University of Basel studied the response of the immune system to Bartonella infection in a mouse model.
University of Basel, Christian Flierl/Zenger

Asked by Zenger News about the study’s focus on trench fever and Carrion’s disease, Siewert explained, “Bartonella bacteria target specific hosts.

“Trench fever and Carrion’s disease are among the most common types of human infectious diseases for which the Bartonella bacterium is responsible.

“The so-called cat scratch disease is another disease that should not be ignored.

“However, we are particularly concerned about Carrion’s disease. It is a crucial factor in the Andes of Peru where it has caused deaths.”

Siewert pointed out that his research group considers the Peruvian variant of Carrion disease a “neglected disease” due to relatively little international media attention.

She told Zenger News: “What is also worrying about Carrion’s disease in South America is that the habitat for the transmitter lice has recently increased.

“Climate change is the reason for this development.”

Siewert clarified that developing a vaccine based on the study result should be ruled out at this time because binding site mutations render the antibodies ineffective.

Dehio said his team will now focus on finding out how bacteria manage to be so variable.

Regarding the chances of creating a vaccine in the foreseeable future, Dehio said: “If we find an antibody against the non-variable part of the autotransporter, an effective vaccination would be quite conceivable.”

The University of Basel is one of Switzerland’s leading scientific institutions. Founded in 1460, it is the oldest university in the country.

Its Biozentrum, where the study was conducted, specializes in basic molecular and biomedical research on cell growth and development, infection biology and neurobiology.

The University of Basel currently has more than 13,000 students and 380 professors. Around 1 in 3 students comes from abroad.

The institution reached the 103rd position in this year’s Times Higher Education World University Rankings.

This story was provided to Newsweek by Zenger News.

What is energy? | HowStuffWorks Wed, 22 Jun 2022 20:00:01 +0000

Imagine a basketball. An ordinary, everyday basketball, perfectly still on an empty court. Now visualize a player – let’s go with Diana Taurasi of the WNBA’s Phoenix Mercury. She heads for the middle of the field, her shoes squeaking against the hardwood boards. Then Taurasi bends down, grabs the ball, gets up and lifts it above his head.

You just witnessed a rise in the ball potential energy.

For the record, this is just one of many types of energy that we encounter on a daily basis. There is also kinetic energy, electrical energy, thermal energy, etc.

This raises a fundamental question. Scientifically, what is energy? What does this word mean in the context of physics, chemistry, engineering and related STEM fields?

Here’s the definition you’re most likely to hear in your advanced level courses or find in a textbook:

Energy is the ability to do work.”

Taken by itself, this phrase may seem vague and not particularly helpful. But don’t worry, we’re here to help you unbox it.

Work, defined

Now, when textbooks say energy is “the ability to do work”, they’re not just talking about a 9 to 5 job. In a nutshell, the scientific meaning of the word “work” is the process of moving an object by applying a force to it.

“Whenever a force is applied to an object, causing the object to move, work is being done by the force,” according to Boston University.

As for energy, it comes in two main categories: kinetic energy and potential energy.

KE goes to Hollywood

Sometimes kinetic energy is described as “the energy of motion”. To possess this kind of energy, an object must be moving.

Remember the Texas-sized asteroid that headed for Earth in Michael Bay’s 1998 blockbuster “Armageddon”? In real life, this thing would have had some serious kinetic energy. The same goes for speeding cars, falling apples, and other moving objects.

Grab a pencil, folks, because we’re about to throw an equation at you:

KE = (1/2)mxv2

Translation: An object’s kinetic energy (“KE”) is equal to half its mass (“m”) multiplied by its velocity squared (“v2“).

Time to break this down with an example. What is the kinetic energy of a 400 kilogram (or 882 pound) horse galloping at a speed of 7 meters per second (23 feet per second)?

Expressed numerically, this is what the problem looks like:

KE = (1/2) 400 x 72

Plug in the numbers and you will find that the kinetic energy possessed by our noble steed is equal to 9800 joules. For the record, joules (abbreviated as “J”) is a unit of measurement used by scientists to quantify energy or work.

So much potential

If kinetic energy is “energy of motion”, then potential energy is “energy of position”.

Let’s go back to Diana Taurasi. What do you think will happen the moment she drops that ball, the one that was said to have lifted off the ground?

Of course, it will fall and hit the hardwood floor. All because of a little thing called gravity. (To keep things simple here, we’re assuming the WNBA star hasn’t been actively pushing or throwing the ball.) And as we now know, the moving object will feature kinetic energy coming down.

But before the drop, before the ball leaves the hands of Taurasi, it will contain a lot of potential energy.

Potential energy is stored energy. It is the energy that an object (Taurasi’s ball in this case) has due to its position relative to other objects, such as solid ground. Why is this phenomenon called “potential energy”? Because it introduces potential for a force – such as gravity – to do work.

Neither created nor destroyed

Note that there are different kinds of potential energy. The one we talked about in our basketball example is called gravitational potential energy or simply “gravitational energy”.

To quote the US Energy Information Administration website, it is a type of potential energy “stored in the height of an object. The taller and heavier the object, the more gravitational energy is stored”.

By lifting her ball off the ground, Taurasi gave gravity the potential to work with her. If she had done like a Harlem Globetrotter and carried the ball to the top of a large circus ladder – or if she had lifted a heavy bowling ball instead of a light basketball – there would be even more energy. gravitational potential at play.

Notice that this energy won’t simply disappear when Taurasi drops the ball. Within the confines of a closed system (like our universe), energy can neither be created nor destroyed. It’s simply transforms.

As it dives towards the hardwood, this ball gravitational potential energy will decrease because it gets closer to the ground. And upon hitting the ground, the ball (functionally) will have no gravitational potential energy.

Yet, as the ball zooms downward and loses gravitational potential energy along the way, there will be a simultaneous increase in its kinetic energy.

Energy Flavors

Our story doesn’t end once the ball hits these floorboards. Part of its energy will be converted into thermal energy and thus generate heat.

Oh, and that cute basketball sound they make when they bounce? It is also a kind of energy, the one that most people call sound.

Other types of energy include electric energy, mechanical energy and radiant energy.

Before we part, we’ll leave you with some last-minute definitions.

  • thermal energy: It refers to the internal movement and vibration of atoms and molecules inside an object or substance. When thermal energy flows Between objects or substances, we call this transfer “heat”.
  • Sound: This is the energy caused by vibrations and which moves through substances in longitudinal waves.
  • Electric energy: A type of kinetic energy, it is the movement of electric charges that can occur when a force is applied to atoms.
  • radiant energy: This is the kind of energy you get from electromagnetic radiation. Light falls into this category.
  • chemical energy: File this one under “potential energy”. It is the energy stored in the bonds that hold the atoms together.
  • gravitational energy: Also called “gravitational potential energy”, it would be the potential energy that an object derives from its placement in space subject to gravity.

Good calculation!

The Real World Behind ‘Jurassic World’: How Dinosaur History Reflects Human History Mon, 20 Jun 2022 23:30:00 +0000

Humans remain fascinated by dinosaurs, which is why scientists have recently announced acclaimed findings that dinosaurs are warm-blooded or maintain a delicate coexistence with exotic plants. And that’s why, as the blockbuster “Jurassic World: Dominion” is unleashed in theaters, a quieter adventure is being told in libraries across America. Reuters Senior Reporter David K. Randall brings the world of early 20th century Western robber barons and adventurers to life in his new book, “The Monster’s Bones: The Discovery of T. Rex and How It Shook Our World.”

If history has a hero, it’s Barnum Brown, who made history by unearthing the first Tyrannosaurus rex fossils in the Montana wilderness. The hero’s foil is Henry Fairfield Osborn, a high-society eugenicist who competed with Brown to fill the American Museum of Natural History with dinosaur bones. It’s a harrowing tale, but with many sober moments of contemplation. For example, it’s hard to read this book and not notice how class, gender, race, and other social constructs determine the fate of these and other men in the tale. Randall’s skill as a writer is undeniable. “The Monster’s Bones” reads like a novel, with real scientific, political and social issues.

At the center of all this man-fuelled chicanery are the stars of the show – the dinosaurs themselves.

In the interview segment below, Salon explained to Randall why a pile of fossils can fuel so much drama — and serve as a focal point of human dreams, from museums to movies, all these years later.

The following transcript has been lightly edited for clarity and context.

I was wondering if you would be willing to elaborate a bit on what you would say was the feeling in the air for people like Osborn or Brown when they were engaged in their endeavors? What was the ideology, the philosophy, the feeling of the time?

One thing that struck me was the idea that science was for the first time seen as a social aspect. There is also a social aspect to science. It wasn’t just people who experimented and discovered the laws of nature. More so, how do these laws of nature affect human beings and affect society? So, with Osborn, his idea was that dinosaurs were a way to bring people to the Museum of Natural History. In many ways, that was almost the lure of the trap. If you bring people to the door, you can also expose them to some of his white supremacy theories on eugenics, in a subtle way.

Brown, on the other hand, was kind of the opposite. He was the idealistic part of the Golden Age. Where he says we have these resources and we have this idea that Earth’s history is much longer and stranger than anyone would have thought possible. So now let’s go and explore it. Let’s try to somehow master the Earth and its history in a certain way. And by doing that, he would basically go into the empty spaces of the map and see what was there. One thing that really struck me was that he was a college student…and he’s writing this letter saying, basically, I can find dinosaurs for you.

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I want to digress briefly from the discussion of your book. We’ll come back, but your book is about using dinosaurs for evil purposes. Now I have to mention the current blockbuster hitting cineplexes around the world, “Jurassic World: Dominion.”

Well, one thing struck me – and I haven’t seen the full movie yet, I’ve only seen a trailer – but with “Jurassic Park”, the first, the 1993 version, the dinosaurs really fulfill that sense of what our cultural concerns are right now. The new “Jurassic World” is like the idea that dinosaurs live among us and there’s this world where they’re not just in a park, they’re basically roaming free. They move around the world. In some ways, it seems to address our concerns about climate change. We got through science, we changed the earth, and now we have to deal with this monster, and we don’t know how to put the genie back in the bottle, basically.

Reuters Senior Reporter David K. Randall brings the world of early 20th century Western robber barons and adventurers to life in his new book, “The Monster’s Bones: The Discovery of T. Rex and How It Shook Our World.”

If you go back to the 1990s, “Jurassic Park” was the beginning of this sense of what technology could do. The Human Genome Project was in its infancy. Then very quickly, they cloned sheep like Dolly. It was this new age of computing and the dinosaurs really seemed to fill in this very neat metaphor for what science can do, and also the fears of science. I think dinosaurs as a whole, moving away from the “Jurassic” franchise, I think dinosaurs are basically this blank slate that we project our fears onto.

I want to come back to your book because you said that dinosaurs are a blank page on which we project our fears. You could also say that they are a blank page on which people project their ambitions. Isn’t that in many ways the theme of the book?

I think that’s a very fair point.

I think for someone like Brown, for sure, it was a way out of his life, or the life that was kind of passed on to him, as a person living on a farm in Kansas, that which is the last thing he wanted to do. Dinosaurs were a path to greater life. And you saw that for a lot of people in the book, the history of paleontology is filled with people who were looking for dinosaurs as a way to do something bigger… I think once they were put in museums, the public reaction to them was the first time you realized that this Earth is strange and natural history is strange. And there were these creatures that were much bigger than you and had teeth the size of your hand. Maybe it makes you feel diminished in a different way.

But it also inspires people to feel inspired. I think of little kids who love T. Rexes and Brontosaurus, and that’s because they’re fearsome. Have you ever thought of that? Why would little kids think that if T Rexes represent the pinnacle of human fear, that mm-hmm kids would view them with dread, as they view the concept of death with dread? In “Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom”, the horrific scene where the dinosaur dies because the volcano explodes and everyone in the audience has tears in their eyes. People care about dinosaurs and feel inspired by them. And I feel like in “The Monster’s Bones” that feeling is captured as well.

I think that’s a good point.

I think “Jurassic Park” is interesting because people want to be in it until the safety mechanisms fail and then they come face to face with the T. Rex and all of a sudden it becomes a story quite different. I think kids love dinosaurs so much because in a way it’s an alien right in front of you being told that’s how the world works and that’s how it all was . And then all of a sudden you basically see what actual monsters were walking around. And this, I think, the dinosaurs represent the era of possibility at this age, of this sense of possibility as well, that life as it is right now is not what it always was, or may -Being will always be, that once upon a time, there were these huge creatures walking the Earth, and that has changed. So whatever circumstances you’re in right now, you can kind of lean on that to say, you know, life is changing.

How To Change Your Mind Trailer Turns To Psychedelics For Mental Health Sat, 18 Jun 2022 21:56:00 +0000

Netflix has released the first trailer for a new four-part documentary series How to change your mind which will teach viewers a little-known side of certain psychedelic drugs.

Oscar winner Alex Gibney adapts the New York Times bestselling author Michael Pollanthe book of 2018 How to change your mind: what the new science of psychedelics teaches us about consciousness, death, addiction, depression and transcendence. Pollan’s work has been described by The New York Times Book Review as “Engaging and startling…To lose one’s mind seems like the most sensible thing a person can do.” While the book is divided into six chapters and an epilogue, the series will be divided into 4 episodes of 50 minutes. Each of the episodes will focus on a different mind-altering drug: LSD, psilocybin, MDMA and mescaline.


Pollan guides viewers on this journey to the frontiers of the new psychedelic renaissance, not to mention the barely recognized historical context, to explore the potential of these substances to provide healing benefits and change minds as well as culture. People’s perception of psychedelic drugs has certainly undergone changes over time, but there are still many things that the public is unaware of or has misinformed opinions about these substances. Emmy nominated Alison Ellwood and twice Oscar nominee Lucy Walker make the documentary.

RELATED: ‘The Future Of’ Trailer Teases Docuseries About A Tech-Driven Society

The trailer focuses on laying out the basics of the series, making it clear that we’re going to learn more about the good things about these four drugs that we probably had no idea about. The documentary interviews both professional scientists and people with mental illnesses such as PTSD who have had life-altering experiences with these drugs.

Chapter 1 revolves around LSD, from its origins in 1943 to the current trend of microdosing and how it has been used to change lives. Chapter 2 explores psilocybin, popularly known as magic mushrooms; these have long been considered sacred by the indigenous Mazatecs of Mexico and have more recently been the subject of scientific study aimed at deciphering their potential to help relieve the symptoms of certain mental illnesses. MDMA is the focus of Chapter 3. The drug has been championed by therapists as well as ravers, and stands out as the first psychedelic likely to be approved by the FDA as a drug, thanks to those who advocated for its value in the treatment of PTSD. Finally, Chapter 4 teaches viewers about mescaline, a psychoactive molecule found in San Pedro and peyote cacti. This drug was used by Native Americans as traditional sacred medicines and in religious ceremonies.

How to change your mind is a puzzle production. The series is produced by Gibney, Pollan, Walker, Stacey Offmanand Richard Perello.

The series will arrive on Netflix next month on July 12. Check out the trailer below:

DW joins Covering Climate Now | Press | DW Fri, 17 Jun 2022 07:42:09 +0000

Vanessa Fischer, head of DW Environment: “The climate crisis is one of DW’s priority topics. As journalists, we have a great responsibility to inform the public about the climate crisis and to continue to show how and why it is. is relevant by providing the necessary context.By joining Covering Climate Now, we can collaborate with partner newsrooms around the world to ensure the issue gets the attention it needs.

Mark Hertsgaard, Co-Founder and Executive Director of CCNow: “Covering Climate Now is delighted and honored to welcome Deutsche Welle to our global collaboration of over 500 news agencies working to strengthen coverage of the defining story of our times. The extraordinary global reach and linguistic diversity of Deutsche Welle’s news coverage combined with its dedication to high-level reporting on the climate emergency and its solutions exemplify the high standards Covering Climate Now delivers across the board. of the information sector.

To kick off the cooperation, DW Environment editor Neil King and US environmental journalist Bill McKibben came together to discuss climate activism with guests Luisa Neubauer, a young environmental activist from Germany, and Kumi Naidoo, an environmental activist South African and former Global Head of Greenpeace. and Amnesty International. You can listen to the interview on DW’s On the Green Fence podcast or read the article here.

About DW

German international broadcaster Deutsche Welle (DW) offers multimedia content in 32 languages ​​and has an average of 289 million weekly contacts with users worldwide. Climate change is one of DW’s priority topics. DW offers many environmental programs, podcasts and reports that combat misinformation and examine environmental issues from angles grounded in scientific fact. More information about DW’s comprehensive online offering can be found at and on several social media accounts. On the Green Fence is an award-winning podcast hosted by DW journalist Neil King that explores the role business, society and science play in transitioning to a more environmentally friendly and low-carbon world. Learn more about the podcast here.

About Covering the Climate Now

CCNow works with journalists and newsrooms to produce more informed and time-sensitive climate stories, to embed climate into every beat of the newsroom, and to lead a public conversation that creates an engaged audience. Co-founded by Columbia Journalism Review and The Nation in association with The Guardian and WNYC in 2019, CCNow partners include Reuters, Bloomberg and Agence France Presse, CBS News, NBC and MSNBC News, Noticias Telemundo, PBS NewsHour, Univision, Al Jazeera. For more information, please visit

New study by Nobel laureate shows ‘largest learning gains ever measured’ using same methodology deployed in Liberian schools Wed, 15 Jun 2022 06:41:37 +0000

MONROVIA – Nobel Prize-winning economist Professor Michael Kremer has published a groundbreaking study showing “one of the largest learning gains ever measured” by a major study on international education.

The study, based on NewGlobe’s methodology, shows that the impact of the education provider is among the largest of any rigorously studied education program.

The methodology of the study is the same as that underpinning the Liberian government’s flagship education program; Liberia Education Advancement Program (LEAP) and ongoing work in schools supported by Bridge Liberia; his greatest partner.

The study was announced by Prof. Kremer to heads of state and political leaders at the World Education Forum in London, in the presence of the Minister of Education, Prof. Sonii, and the Liberian delegation.

Professor Michael Kremer’s study of NewGlobe’s methodological approach to teaching and learning, using one of NewGlobe’s programs, found that students from elementary school through middle school, after two years in the NewGlobe program, are almost an extra year ahead of children taught using standard methods. If replicated at scale in public education systems, the gains could be enough to put African children – including Liberians – from underserved communities on track to equal their peers in three-income countries. or four times higher.

The study further found that for early childhood development (ECD) – typically 3- and 5-year-olds – children gain almost an extra year and a half of learning; learn in two years what students in other schools learn in three and a half years.

The study also reveals that children taught using NewGlobe’s methods are more than three times more likely to be able to read a sentence by the time they are in first grade, compared to their peers in other grades. schools. The World Bank estimates that 90% of 10-year-olds in sub-Saharan Africa do not meet this threshold.

The NewGlobe methodology achieved a standard deviation increase of 1.35 in pre-primary education and 0.81 in primary schools, a methodology that is the same as that used by Bridge Liberia; in context, this impact represents learning gains in the top 1% among large rigorous studies in Africa.

Speaking about the study, Professor Kremer said that “The effects of this study are among the largest in the international education literature, especially for a program that was already operating at scale.

“This study shows that attending schools with highly standardized education has the potential to produce dramatic learning gains on a large scale, suggesting that policy makers may wish to explore the incorporation of standardization, including standardized lesson plans and teacher feedback and tracking, in their own systems.”

The findings are a claim by the Liberian government’s LEAP partner – Bridge Liberia – which has been operating in all 15 counties of Liberia since 2017.

Bridge Liberia, a NewGlobe portfolio program, is the lead partner in an innovative, philanthropically funded public-private partnership known as the Liberia Education Advancement Program (LEAP), designed by the Liberian government to improve the learning of pupils in public primary schools.

The program was the first government program to use the methodology developed by NewGlobe and implement it as part of a transformation of the public education system. Liberia is now known – and seen – as a model for government public education programs on the continent.

This is the second study to examine the methodology used by Bridge Liberia to improve teaching and learning. An ECR study in 2019 showed that students in schools supported by Bridge Liberia had the equivalent of 2.5 additional years of learning compared to their peers.

It didn’t take long for other African countries – particularly in West Africa – to start learning from this innovation and adopting this model of partnership in education.

The Nigerian states of Edo, Lagos and Kwara launched similar government schemes dubbed EdoBEST, EKOEXCEL and KwaraEARN respectively in 2018, 2019 and 2022.

What all of these government education programs have in common is a partnership with an education provider that has a proven track record in the global South and success in providing educational support to governments and communities across the African continent.

President George Weah in his last state of the nation address, he acknowledged the improvement in the education sector and the progress made by the government in improving the lives of young people through quality education.

Providing quality education to our future leaders has remained a top priority of my administration. I am happy to report that we have made great strides in improving literacy and other learning outcomes in the education sector, with significant achievements in the areas of access, the quality and transformation of the system.

Vice President Jewel Howard Taylor, a strong advocate for education, like many, believes this partnership is bringing relevant change to public education and calls on education stakeholders to support these innovative ideas.

We should embrace new proposals and ideas that seek to move us forward as we seek answers to the educational challenges we face; Bridge Liberia is just one of many partners supporting the government through the Ministry of Education to achieve this goal; we must support innovation to enable us to succeed; we should welcome this effort”.

Bridge Liberia’s approach to transforming public education, recommended by the World Bank, combines structured pedagogy with technology-supported real-time data collection for accountability and feedback, especially as countries struggle to recovering from the global COVID-19 pandemic. Bridge Liberia focuses on teacher training and leverages technology to empower teachers and improve children’s learning outcomes, through intensive training, ongoing support, science-based digital education guides, management techniques positive class feedback and real-time course tracking.

UNESCO Vice President for Education and Chief Executive of Bridge Liberia, Gbovadeh Gbilia said:

“Improving the future of Liberian youth is the most important task of the Liberian government; Children are our future.

“As Liberians, we are proud that the techniques and methodology used to enable some of the greatest learning gains ever measured are also being used in Liberian schools. We all want more for Liberia and her children and we are taking proactive steps to make it happen.

“The data-driven scientific learning techniques that underpin this study by Nobel Prize-winning economist, Dr. Michael Kremer, are the model for the work being done under the government’s LEAP programme. They are currently supporting the Liberian government to improve learning for over 75,000 students in 350 public primary schools across the country.

Bridge Liberia is one of the programs supported by NewGlobe, a global education organization supporting large-scale public education improvements in state and national programs to ensure more effective learning in classrooms.

The LEAP program is set to be a central part of the government’s long-awaited five-year education sector plan, which is due to be released in the fall of 2022.

Non-contact Thickness Gauges Market Overview 2022-2029 | Key Players – Yokogawa, Vollmer, TQC Sheen, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Onto Innovation, NDC Technologies, MTI Instruments, Lumetrics, Lumetrics, FUTEC – Indian Defense News Mon, 13 Jun 2022 00:00:10 +0000

The Non-contact thickness gauges The report is an in-depth examination of the overall consumption structure, development trends, sales techniques and major country sales of Non-Contact Thickness Gauges. The research covers well-known vendors in the global Non-Contact Thickness Gauge industry along with market segmentation, competition, and macroeconomic climate. A comprehensive analysis of non-contact thickness gauges takes into account a number of aspects, including a country’s population and business cycles, as well as market-specific microeconomic consequences. The global market study also includes a specific section on the competition landscape to help you better understand the Non-contact Thickness Gauges industry. This information can help stakeholders make informed decisions before investing.

Key Players of Non-contact Thickness Gauges including:

Yokogawa, Vollmer, TQC Sheen, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Onto Innovation, NDC Technologies, MTI Instruments, Lumetrics, Lumetrics, FUTEC

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The report is categorized into several sections that consider competitive environment, latest market events, technological developments, countries and regional details related to Non-Contact Thickness Gauges. The section that details the pandemic impact, recovery strategies and post-pandemic market performance of each player is also included in the report. Major opportunities that may support non-contact thickness gauges are identified in the report. The report focuses specifically on near-term opportunities and strategies to realize one’s full potential. Crucial uncertainties for market players to understand are included in the Non-contact Thickness Gauges report.

Due to these issues, the non-contact thickness gauge industry has been hampered. Due to the small number of significant companies in the industry, the field of non-contact thickness gauges is heavily targeted. Customers would benefit from this research as they would be informed about the current scenario of non-contact thickness gauges. The latest innovations, product news, product variations, and in-depth updates from industry specialists who have effectively exploited the position of non-contact thickness gauges are all included in this research study. Many companies would benefit from a research study of Non-contact Thickness Gauges to identify and expand their global demand. Micro and macro trends, significant developments, and their usage and penetration among a wide variety of end users are also included in the Non-Contact Thickness Gauges segment.

Market analysis done with statistical tools also helps to analyze many aspects including demand, supply, storage costs, maintenance, profit, sales and production details of the market. In addition, the global Non-contact Thickness Gauges research report provides details about Non-contact Thickness Gauges share, import volume, export volume and gross margin of companies.

Non-contact Thickness Gauges Segmentation by Type:

X-rays, infrared rays, others.

Non-contact Thickness Gauges Segmentation by Application:

Film, Sheet

The non-contact thickness gauges report answers some key questions:

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Report Highlights:

  • The report provides non-contact thickness gauge industry demand trends in the first and second quarters of 2021.
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1 Scope of the report
1.1 Market Overview
1.2 Research objectives
1.3 Years considered
1.4 Market research methodology
1.5 Economic indicators
1.6 Currency considered
2 Executive summary
3 Global Non-contact Thickness Gauges by Players
4 Non-contact Thickness Gauges by Regions
4.1 Non-Contact Thickness Gauge Size by Regions
4.2 Americas Non-Contact Thickness Gauge Size Growth
4.3 Size Growth of APAC Non-Contact Thickness Gauges
4.4 Europe Non-Contact Thickness Gauge Size Growth
4.5 Middle East & Africa Non-Contact Thickness Gauge Size Growth
5 Americas
8 Middle East and Africa
9 Market Drivers, Challenges and Trends
9.1 Market Drivers and Impact
9.1.1 Growing Demand from Key Regions
9.1.2 Growing Demand from Key Applications and Potential Industries
9.2 Market Challenges and Impact
9.3 Market trends
10 Global Forecast of Non-contact Thickness Gauges
Analysis of the 11 key players
12 Research findings and conclusion

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Seven things you need to know about NASA’s new $4.9 billion mission to Saturn’s tiny moon Enceladus Sat, 11 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000

NASA goes to Enceladus! Last month, the National Academy of Sciences finally released its 10-Year Survey of Planetary Science and Astrobiology – widely seen as a “to do” list for NASA – and the star of the show was the recommendation NASA to develop the Enceladus Orbilander mission to explore Saturn’s sixth satellite. bigger moon.

Enceladus has a warm, salty ocean beneath its icy surface. It also has plumes or geysers that spew this liquid into space. It means unprecedented access to an alien ocean, which is why some planetary scientists and astrobiologists rank it as the most exciting object in the solar system. However, Orbilander won’t be reaching Enceladus anytime soon.

Here are seven things you need to know about Orbilander’s jaw-dropping plans to orbit and land on Enceladus:

1. Orbilander will land and take pictures

Orbilander will orbit Enceladus, essentially sampling its plumes – as ice particles in space – twice a day for 200 days. Then it will land. Enceladus has about a hundredth the gravity of Earth, so landing should be relatively easy compared to Mars. It will then remain at the surface for at least a few years, occasionally changing position, to collect (probably much larger) samples of this plume material that has settled.

It will also have cameras on board to send back photos from orbit and from the surface, as well as a seismometer to capture possible “ice quakes”. At the end of the mission, Orbilander will remain on the surface of Enceladus.

2. It won’t happen until 2050, and that’s perfect

Orbilander’s concept suggests a launch in October 2038 (with a backup in November 2039) to arrive in 2050. That’s a long time, Orbilander not expected to be launched by NASA until 2029 at the earliest. Of course, 2050 – at least – is a very long time to wait for the first scientific results from a NASA mission.

That’s exploring the outer solar system for you.

Still, there’s a good scientific argument for waiting until then anyway. Beginning development of Orbilander in the late 2020s means arriving at Enceladus in the early 2050s when its south pole enters the austral summer. This means more of the moon will be illuminated as the mission progresses.

3. It could be launched on a SpaceX Starship spacecraft

To reach Saturn in seven years – which would be followed by a four-year “circle of the moon” to “reduce” its speed so it can orbit its target – the Enceladus Orbilander requires a super launch vehicle. heavy. This likely means NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS), although it could also mean the SpaceX Starship vehicle. Both are still in development.

However, it could be launched on a heavy lift vehicle – like the SpaceX Falcon Heavy – if it also included a solar-electric propulsion stage and/or Jupiter gravity assist. Assists to Venus and Earth’s gravity would also be possible. But for either one, then we’re talking about nine or 10 years just to reach Saturn.

4. He will seek life

Enceladus is an icy rock world with active plumes of gases and particles coming from its subterranean ocean. Thus, Orbilander will be able to study the materials in its plumes as if it were directly sampling its subterranean ocean for signs of habitability.

The main scientific objectives of Orbilander are:

  • look for evidence of life.
  • to obtain geochemical and geophysical context for life detection experiments.

5. Enceladus is tiny

The main problem with the Orbilander mission concept is that Enceladus is so small. It’s only 311 miles/500 kilometers in diameter, the same distance between London and Edinburgh, so physically breaking out of Saturn’s orbit and orbiting Enceladus won’t be easy.

Cue a four-year lap of Saturn’s moons to slow it down and put it on the right course to intercept Enceladus.

6. It will cost $4.9 billion…that’s $900 million

If NASA just can’t afford to begin development of the $4.9 billion Orbilander mission, it has a plan B from the committee. Also on the list is the Enceladus Multiple Flyby (EMF) concept, a more affordable “New Frontiers” mission costing less than $900 million. EMP is a flyby mission that would require a spacecraft to collect plume samples while traveling at 4 km/s – which is not ideal – and it would gather 100 times less material than Orbilander. The EMF would also lack life detection capability and be unable to provide geological or geophysical context.

If Orbilander starts by 2030, on target, then EMF is history, the 10-year survey report says. “When we generate a 10-year survey, we don’t know what the budget will be over those 10 years, and there are a lot of funding draws,” said Amy Simon, senior scientist for planetary atmospheres research in the division. of Solar System Exploration at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, and a member of the committee that prepared the report. “While we’d like to see two new Flagships launch over the decade, this may or may not be affordable, so allowing Enceladus to remain in New Frontiers allows for additional flexibility.”

7. Enceladus Orbilander is not guaranteed

Although it has beaten rival concept missions – in particular the Europa Lander, Mercury Lander, Neptune-Triton Odyssey Flagship and Venus Flagship – Orbilander is only the second highest priority flagship mission after the Uranus Orbiter and Lander.

Given that NASA has already embarked on the Mars Sample Return mission to fetch the rocks currently being collected by its Perseverance rover – and that the Uranus orbiter and lander were ranked third in the 2010 decadal survey and were never built – the chances of Orbilander becoming a reality still hang in the balance.

“Orbilander offers a unique opportunity to explore the astrobiological conditions of ocean worlds and will revolutionize our understanding of these worlds,” the Decadal Survey report states.

It must be worth the wait.

I wish you big eyes and clear skies.

Book review: A treasure trove of interdisciplinary learning Wed, 08 Jun 2022 16:00:00 +0000

This accessible and useful book combines history with archeology by delving into Taiwan’s maritime past

  • By James Baron / Contributing Journalist

From time to time a work appears which ruthlessly exposes the limits of his knowledge. Even seasoned students of Taiwan history will likely come across this book repeatedly.

Whether speculating on the origins of the Pisheye (毗舍耶) raiders who terrorized the Fujian coast in the 12th century; citing the 1875 memoir of British Royal Navy Captain Bonham Ward Bax, for whom the Taiwanese were “looters…always looking upon wreckage as legitimate spoils”; or postulating trade relations, rather than shared origins, as the source of mutual intelligibility in the languages ​​of Lanyu (蘭嶼) and the Batane Islands, each article in this collection is rich in revelations.

Some documents are intended for specialists, but most subjects are accessible. Even the chapters that contain lots of data and graphics for the average reader – especially those on archeology and climate – are textually simple enough to ensure that reading is rarely a chore. This clarity, conciseness and engagement of the prose is in part due to the interdisciplinary nature of the subjects.

This is acknowledged in the introduction, where the editors call for “a timely synergy between archaeologists and historians” and credit “careful multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary work” for helping to fill “the vast historical void in the written sources”.

Fans of equally polymathic popular science – the work of Jared Diamond or geneticist Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza come to mind – should find this book a treat. Areas of expertise that might normally seem obscure or difficult are communicated with elan. The authors and editorial team must also take immense credit for making a work of such scholarship so effortlessly enjoyable.

In addition to articles with a more scientific vocation, there are fascinating chapters devoted to textual sources on the maritime history of Taiwan. These include works in Chinese, English and Spanish, some of which have rarely, if ever, been discussed in English before and certainly not in this context.

Two nautical terms that appear in several chapters – but receive their fullest treatment in an essay by Chen Kuo-tong titled “Chinese Knowledge of the Waters Around Taiwan” – are luoji (落漈) and wanhsui chaodong (萬水朝東) . Although both have been in use since at least the Yuan dynasty, a precise meaning for either remains elusive.

Literally translated as “all the waters leading to the east”, this last phrase is generally taken to refer, rather loosely, to the vast expanses of the Pacific Ocean. However, the location of the first, which indicates some sort of deep trench, is shrouded in mystery.


Some Yuan sources indicate it to be near Penghu or “the Liuqiu (琉球) Islands”, while later chroniclers suggest a location as far south as the Pratas Islands (Dongsha Islands, 東沙島). Where exactly it was, the luojii was considered a treacherous place where high winds and a sudden drop in depth meant that few ships captured there “could safely return”. Chen speculates that the place or phenomenon in question could be the Kuroshio Current or Black Current (黑潮) which flows northeast from the Philippines through Taiwan and Japan. Elsewhere, the luoji and the kuroshio are considered separate entities.

Readers familiar with the exploits of Ming Dynasty admiral Zheng He (鄭和) and China’s burgeoning naval prowess during this period might also be surprised how few Chinese seafarers seemed to know – or at least connect – from the surrounding seas before.

The gap in reliable records is partly due to the fact that the best existing accounts generally came from anomalous ancient travel writers who had very little knowledge of the intricacies of seafaring, rather than from professional sailors. Later records, such as those of scholar Yu Yonghe (陏永河), whose Small Sea Diaries (裨海紀遊) is a personal and unique account of Taiwan in the late 17th century, are rarely more trustworthy – du least not. on the nautical front.


Besides the climatological and nautical terminology, even the references to islands and places were confused. Some readers know that in addition to being the current name of a small island southwest of Taiwan, Liuqiu is also the Chinese name for the Ryukyu Islands or the main island of the group, Okinawa, and that it has also been used as the name of Taiwan at times in history. More surprising is Chen’s revelation that Japanese samurai Toyotomi Hideyoshi referred to the Philippines as such in correspondence with his Spanish Governor General.

Other names that seem to have referred to Taiwan were (or could have been) Yi Island (Yizhou, 夷洲), the mythical Penglai Islands (蓬萊仙島), or the Min Region (閩) of the south coast. east of China that the ancient Sea Mountains Classical Text (山海經) claimed to “lie in the sea”. (NB: This is distinct from the modern Min people and language group, of which Hokkien-Taiwanese is a variety.)

Thus, Taiwan itself appears as a nebulous, liminal presence despite, or perhaps because of, the fascinating exposure it receives in this collection. This does not necessarily mean the geopolitical marginalization that the country has suffered in contemporary times. Rather, it is a facet of the spirit of investigation that underlies the work: like any great science, by illuminating dark corners, it reveals hitherto unknown passages to other places which otherwise would have could remain prohibited.

Release Notes

Maritime landscapes — from the Neolithic to the early modern period

Edited by Paola Calanca, Liu Yi-chang & Frank Muyard


French School of the Far East

Paperback: France

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How a Prometheus Director’s Cut Could Improve the Flawed Prequel Sat, 04 Jun 2022 19:50:00 +0000

Prometheus is Ridley Scott’s flawed prequel to Alien, and here’s how a director’s cut—restoring some great deleted scenes—could improve the movie.

Here’s how a Prometheus the director’s cut might fix some of the prequel’s ambitious but flawed issues. When it comes to movie director cuts, Ridley Scott is one filmmaker that often comes to mind. The reputation of his 1982 sci-fi classic blade runner increased dramatically with the release of its director’s cut, which did away with the terrible studio-mandated “happy” ending and Harrison Ford’s monotonous voice-over. His new haircuts The counselor – which received largely negative reviews upon release – and kingdom of paradise also saw these projects being completely reassessed.

Scott is so closely tied to director’s cuts that studios have even tried to use that reputation to sell “extended” versions of his other films on home media. The longer cuts of Gladiator Where The Martian restore few essential elements to their stories, however, while the 2003 Alien: Director’s Cut actually runs slightly shorter and re-inserting the unnecessary “Eggmorphing” sequence only showed why it was originally cut. The director showed little interest in revisiting his Extraterrestrial prequel Prometheusbut ironically, it’s one of his movies that probably needs it the most.


Related: Alien: Covenant – Michael Fassbender’s David Kill Walter?

Prometheus followed a team of scientists landing on a distant planet in hopes of discovering the origins of mankind, only to meet their hostile creators. It’s an ambitious, visually rich sci-fi adventure, but it was let down by silly characters and bizarre storytelling choices. The film also cut out some great footage, many of which would help alleviate some of its issues. For example, one of the most criticized scenes involved biologist Millburn (Rafe Spall) attempting to pet a very dangerous alien creature, but there were two. Prometheus deleted moments that accumulated until he first discovered a small worm – which he is excited about because it is proof of extraterrestrial life – and later his lost skin.

elisabeth shaw prometheus ax

It at least gave proper context to the maligned scene where he tries to touch the creature. Charlize Theron felt underutilized as Weyland’s daughter, Vickers, but deleted moments like Idris Elba’s Janek come to comfort her after burning Holloway to death or an extended reunion with her father would give her more depth. On the creature front, an alternate version of Fifield’s mutated battle brought him to life using CG instead of practical effects. This version works much better, with Fifield looking like a mutant Xenomorph and being much more nimble and monstrous. Prometheus also greatly condensed the finale between Shaw and the surviving Engineer, cutting out an entire fight scene where she attacks the alien with an axe. It’s a much better streak with this extended chase.

Of course, the Engineer waking up and actually talking to David (Michael Fassbender) before attacking him is another piece of context the movie could have used. Generally, Scott just cuts the context out of the scenes and assuming they’re unnecessary is an overall problem with Prometheus. The prequel could also lose some scenes, including Holloway (Logan Marshall-Green) being unnecessarily douchy and sulky despite spearheading one of the greatest scientific discoveries of all time, which would benefit his character. Strategic trimmings could fix some issues with the prequel, though other fundamental flaws – like Guy Pearce’s terrible old-age makeup as Weyland – can’t be totally fixed. Prometheus is a film that feels like there’s a much better version beneath the issues, but while some fans want one, a director’s cut doesn’t seem to be happening.

Next: Alien: Covenant’s Director’s Cut Could Redeem The Maligned Prequel

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