covid pandemic – Templo Do Conhecimento http://templodoconhecimento.com/ Tue, 19 Apr 2022 11:04:47 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.9.3 https://templodoconhecimento.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/cropped-icon-32x32.png covid pandemic – Templo Do Conhecimento http://templodoconhecimento.com/ 32 32 Benchmark Scientific, witeg Labortechnik GmbH, Cleaver Scientific, Eins-Sci cc, Life Science, Harvard Apparatus, PolyScience, Labstac, Grant, PATEK, BIOBASE – The Bollywood Ticket https://templodoconhecimento.com/benchmark-scientific-witeg-labortechnik-gmbh-cleaver-scientific-eins-sci-cc-life-science-harvard-apparatus-polyscience-labstac-grant-patek-biobase-the-bollywood-ticket/ Wed, 16 Mar 2022 07:01:12 +0000 https://templodoconhecimento.com/benchmark-scientific-witeg-labortechnik-gmbh-cleaver-scientific-eins-sci-cc-life-science-harvard-apparatus-polyscience-labstac-grant-patek-biobase-the-bollywood-ticket/

the Heated Circulating Bashes The report is an in-depth examination of the overall global consumption structure, development trends, sales techniques and sales of major nations. The research covers well-known vendors in the global Heated Circulating Bash industry along with the market segmentation, competition, and macroeconomic climate. A comprehensive analysis of Heated Circulating Bashes takes into account a number of aspects, including a country’s population and economic cycles, as well as market-specific microeconomic consequences. The global market study also includes a specific section on the competition landscape to help you better understand the Heated Circulating Bash industry. This information can help stakeholders make informed decisions before investing.

Key Circulating Heated Bash Players including:

Benchmark Scientific, witeg Labortechnik GmbH, Cleaver Scientific, Eins-Sci cc, Life Science, Harvard Apparatus, PolyScience, Labstac, Grant, PATEK, BIOBASE

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The report is categorized into several sections which consider competitive environment, latest market events, technological developments, countries and regional details related to Heated Circulating Bash. The section that details the pandemic impact, recovery strategies and post-pandemic market performance of each player is also included in the report. Major opportunities likely to support heated circulating bashes are identified in the report. The report focuses specifically on near-term opportunities and strategies to realize one’s full potential. Uncertainties that are crucial for market players to understand are included in the Heated Circulating Bashes report.

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Heated Circulating Bashes Segmentation by Type:

Immersion Heated Circulating Bash, Open Heated Circulating Bash.

Heated Circulating Bashes Segmentation by Application:

Laboratory, Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Others

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  • What is the expected growth of heated circulating bash around the world after the discovery of a vaccine or treatment for covid-19?
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Contents:

1 Scope of the report
1.1 Market Overview
1.2 Research objectives
1.3 Years considered
1.4 Market research methodology
1.5 Economic indicators
1.6 Currency considered
2 Executive summary
3 Players Global Heated Circulation Shots
4 circulating bashs heated by regions
4.1 Size of Heated Circulating Bashes by Regions
4.2 Americas Heated Circulating Bashes Size Growth
4.3 Size Growth of APAC Heated Circulating Bashes
4.4 Europe Heated Circulating Bashes Size Growth
4.5 Middle East & Africa Size Growth of Heated Circulating Bashes
5 Americas
6 APACs
7Europe
8 Middle East and Africa
9 Market Drivers, Challenges and Trends
9.1 Market Drivers and Impact
9.1.1 Growing Demand from Key Regions
9.1.2 Growing Demand from Key Applications and Potential Industries
9.2 Market Challenges and Impact
9.3 Market trends
10 Global Heated Circulating Bash Predictions
Analysis of the 11 key players
12 Research findings and conclusion

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Democratization of higher education https://templodoconhecimento.com/democratization-of-higher-education/ Tue, 15 Mar 2022 18:31:22 +0000 https://templodoconhecimento.com/democratization-of-higher-education/

For learners, the flexibility, adaptability and personalization fueled by digitalization make learning a joyful enterprise, both in traditional classroom learning and online, says Raghavendra P. Tiwari

The United States Secretary of Education in the 1960s, John Gardner, once wondered if we could be equal and excellent at the same time. Since then, coexistent frameworks of access, equity, quality and affordability of education have been widely debated. Such a comprehensive education system must ensure access to quality education for all knowledge seekers at their doorstep and at an affordable cost to create a large pool of effective learners with subject matter knowledge, soft and hard skills. and the ability to communicate across cultures. , time and space. The student community, particularly in India, is a heterogeneous group with a wide diversity of needs and requires a variety of learning formats, pace, learning style choices and other associated forms of flexibility.

Information and communication technologies (ICT) can help us a lot in this regard, as they are rapidly emerging as catalysts to bring innovative disruptions in higher education and create new learning narratives. Technological advancements in the modern world are so rapid and relevant that Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) that are unable to take advantage of technological disruptions in higher education to prepare for the changes occurring in the processes teaching and learning will lose their relevance.

Digitization of higher education is a crucial factor in this context as it helps to create responsive administration, multi-disciplinary curriculum, appropriate pedagogies (experiential learning) and real-time performance assessment based on learning outcomes. learning, effective communication, interconnectedness, seamless availability of e-learning resources even in the most remote rural areas, innovations and entrepreneurship, collaboration and outreach. Additionally, digitization will help learners who cannot be in the classroom and those with different abilities.

Digitization in Indian higher education has started with the production of quality electronic content and courseware by the Electronic and Multimedia Resource Centers (EMRC) under the Educational Communication Consortium and its dissemination through the Vyas Higher Education TV channel 24×7 and thirty two SWAYAMPRABHA DTH channels. This digitization process has been accelerated over the past decade by the Ministry of Education through several initiatives related to access to online courses, quality digital academic content, academic research and administrative practices. institutional.

For online courses and access to online content, Massive Open Online Courses through the SWAYAM platform, National Program on Technology Enhanced Learning, e-PG Pathshala (curriculum-based interactive electronic content), e-Acharya (a portal to host all electronic content developed through projects under NME-ICT), FOSSE (free/free and open source software for education) and SAKSHAT (a one-stop educational portal) are available.

e-Shodh Sindhu (Consortia for Higher Education Electronic Resources), e-ShodhGangotri (a digital repository of theses and dissertations), Shodh Shudhhi (plagiarism detection software), National Digital Library (a digital repository of vast content academic) are databases and tools made available to further academic research.

Similarly, to facilitate skills development and innovation through a virtual learning environment in science, engineering, technology and design development, e-Yantra (training labs to embedded systems), e-Kalpa (digital learning environment for design), Virtual Labs (Web-enabled experiments designed for remote operation), spoken tutorial (tutorials in computer application), SOS tools (firmware and simulation), text transcription of video content, OSCAR (open source tutorial animation repository) are available. In addition, VIDWAN (a digital database of experts) is made available to promote expertise sharing and collaboration between academics and institutions.

Digital academic management is provided by the National Academic Depository through DigiLocker (to ensure 24×7 availability of all student awards in digital form) and Baadal (NME-ICT cloud development and deployment of eGov applications for academic needs), and the SAMARTH project improves the efficiency of administrative, financial and evaluation-related activities by reducing response time and promoting ease of education. All of these efforts have provided a solid foundation needed to create a digitization ecosystem in higher education. These initiatives will also be of immense use for the proposed digital university which should be established on the model of University 4.0.

Digitization of higher education has seen a surge during the COVID-19 pandemic, forcing HEIs to resort to online teaching using LMS. It is now evident that higher education will see extensive use of digitalization in course design, practice-oriented teaching, research, assessment and all other aspects of teaching and learning. to create a next-generation learning environment.

For learners, the flexibility, adaptability and personalization fueled by digitization make learning a joyful enterprise, both in online and traditional classroom learning. Through technology-based flipped classrooms, virtual reality sessions, virtual labs, digital models and simulations, gamification, electronic documents, electronic texts and reference books, online assignments, learning and extensive open educational resources, students can have engaging learning experiences.

To facilitate the impending transition, HEIs must use appropriate technology to create a credible ecosystem that improves learning outcomes and offers personalization. This can be accomplished by using ICT, adopting blended learning models, creating industry associations and developing skills and competencies for 21st century life. HEIs must continually improve their curricula, course content, pedagogy, assessment, integrate problem-solving research with academics, conduct research in the digital environment with peers around the world, and adapt models modular. HEIs also need to turn to learner-centred, soft-skills-focused and domain-specific approaches that are key to improving learners’ employability. They should embrace hybrid learning models comprising offline, online, lab and on-site platforms and include industry, skill centers and unorganized learning centers in rural India by creating collaborative and outreach activities between industry and academia.

The implementation of the National Education Policy-2020 cannot be considered without the digitization of higher education. Capacity building of faculty members in digitization technologies should be done to empower them to embrace the advancement that the teaching-learning process is witnessing. However, funding will be a major barrier to effective digitization of higher education, as large-scale investments in hardware, software and the provision of high-speed internet connectivity in remote and rural areas are needed to create a robust digital architecture necessary for a global approach. , comprehensive and flexible learning ecosystem. Overcoming these obstacles should be paramount to the long-term success of the ongoing process of digitizing higher education. This success will ensure that the screen trend of gen-next is taken seriously and their decreasing memory duration is also improved. Education planners and leaders need to be aware of this and take responsibility for the digitalization of their respective institutions. HEIs that are not an integral part of this process and therefore do not stand ready for digital will actually be doing a great disservice to the nation’s learning system.

The author is Prof Raghavendra P Tiwari, Vice Chancellor of Central Punjab University, Bathinda

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The Knowledge Summit kicks off tomorrow at Expo 2020 Dubai https://templodoconhecimento.com/the-knowledge-summit-kicks-off-tomorrow-at-expo-2020-dubai/ Sun, 13 Mar 2022 12:17:02 +0000 https://templodoconhecimento.com/the-knowledge-summit-kicks-off-tomorrow-at-expo-2020-dubai/

DUBAI, United Arab Emirates – Under the patronage of His Highness Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Vice President and Prime Minister of the United Arab Emirates and Governor of Dubai, the 7th edition of the Knowledge Summit is due to begin tomorrow (Monday, March 14 2022) at EXPO 2020 Dubai. The Summit was organized by the Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum Knowledge Foundation (MBRF) in collaboration with the United Nations Development Program (UNDP).

The five-day summit, which will be held under the theme “Knowledge: Protecting Humanity and the Planet During the Pandemic,” will include live sessions on March 14-15 and virtual conferences on March 16-18.

The summit will focus on facilitating broad and detailed discussions on several issues of common global interest and impact. It will bring together speakers from an elite group of experts, academics and internationally renowned policy makers to examine the challenges of building a knowledge society and review the various opportunities and options offered by knowledge. . Another crucial objective is to formulate effective solutions and tools that would enable countries to achieve their development plans within the framework of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals.

The launch of the Knowledge Summit is part of the UAE’s ambition to facilitate the dissemination of knowledge. It will also highlight the opportunities and challenges of building knowledge societies in light of the changes brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic. EXPO 2020 was chosen because of its international audience and global reach that would allow for an intersectional perspective on various topics. It will serve as an ideal platform to engage in constructive debates and discussions about the knowledge industry and its role in solving current and future challenges, while exploring human intelligence and achievement.

The main sessions cover general themes, including “Knowledge is the engine of the future”, “Web 3.0 education – Metaversity”, “The role and impact of the media during the crisis: COVID-19 (by example)”, “Pandemics and their impact on the climate: a double-edged sword”, “Food security: between sustainable supply chains and self-sufficiency”, “Creative thinking: towards societies without poverty”, “Mental health and Pandemics”, “Young Entrepreneurship”, “Epidemiology and Public Health: A Profound Impact on How We Live Our Lives” and “How is COVID-19 Reshaping the Legal Landscape?”

Parallel sessions under the banner “Knowledge Space” will also address several topics such as “Improving Resilience in Times of Uncertainty”, “A New Model for Education”, “Disseminating Knowledge in Non-Traditional Ways: researcher’s experience”, “Fostering mechanisms for collaboration and innovation to manage risks”, “Promoting scientific and political dialogues: science-policy interfaces”, “Developing the knowledge economy in the era of intangible assets” and “Availability and access to data: the key to resilience”.

The sessions will also present the results of the Arab States in the Global Knowledge Index 2021 and the results of the Social Progress Index, which measures the level of social progress in countries. The report is based on several criteria aimed at measuring well-being, opportunities and basic human needs. It is considered the most comprehensive measure of social and environmental performance.

In addition, the Summit will also see the launch of the third edition of the Foresight Report on the Future of Knowledge. This report will review the future knowledge landscape and analyze the differences in the transformative capacities of various countries in the face of major global risks. Created using big data over two years, this report will also provide new insights into how countries are prepared to face future risks.

For the first time, Knowledge Summit events will also continue virtually, through conferences on the website platform from March 16-18. These sessions will examine various topics such as “Effective leadership during the crisis: transforming cultures and stimulating innovation”, “Reinventing jobs and employment”, “Resilient infrastructure: a profitable long-term investment”, “Security of the water: a cornerstone for economic, social and environmental development”, “SDG-based learning: qualifying young agents of change”, “Knowledge management and big data in companies: an industry 4.0 perspective” and “Coexistence and synergies in the marine space”.

MBRF’s main priority is to promote knowledge among societies in the region and the world that will contribute to empowerment. The foundation strives to implement an action plan that will create faster and more accurate solutions to health, environmental, economic and social challenges, and aims to deliver a better future with a clear path to sustainable development.

-Ends-

For more information:
Orient Planet Group (OPG)
Email: media@orientplanet.com
Website: www.orientplanet.com

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Explained: Why did the government of West Bengal suspend the internet on class 10 exam days? https://templodoconhecimento.com/explained-why-did-the-government-of-west-bengal-suspend-the-internet-on-class-10-exam-days/ Mon, 07 Mar 2022 06:19:55 +0000 https://templodoconhecimento.com/explained-why-did-the-government-of-west-bengal-suspend-the-internet-on-class-10-exam-days/ In order to stop the use of unfair means, the government of West Bengal has decided to temporarily suspend internet services for a few hours in some areas on the days of the Class 10 (Madhyamik) State Board Examination which begins today.

However, there are still no limits to call and SMS services. The suspension will take place on March 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14 and 16 between 11 a.m. and 3:15 p.m. An estimated 6,21,931 girls and 4,96,890 boys will take Class 10 exams this year.

What did the state government order say?

The order issued in this regard stated: “Whereas intelligence reports have been received that Internet transmissions and Voice over Internet telephony may be used for illegal activities in certain areas in the coming days; and whereas examination of the information received suggests that such illegal activities are likely to occur in the absence of preventive measures; and considering that the Constitution of India guarantees the freedom of expression of Indian citizens but at the same time permits reasonable restrictions thereon; and considering that no restrictions are placed on voice calls and SMS and logs, therefore communication and dissemination of knowledge and information is in no way stopped.

He added: “Now, therefore, in order to prevent obstruction, inconvenience or injury to any person lawfully employed, or danger to human life, health or safety, or disturbance to the public peace, or riot or brawl, by an order under Section 144 CrPC, and pursuant to subrule 2(1) of the Temporary Suspension of Telecommunications Services (Public Emergency or Public Service) Rules, 2017 and sub – Rule 2(A) of the Telecommunications Services Temporary Suspension (Amendment) Rules, 2020, it is hereby enacted that: 1. Any data-related message or class of messages to or from any person or class of persons concerning a particular subject, brought for transmission by or transmitted or received by any telegraph within the scope of the Indian Telegraph Act 1885 will temporarily not be transmitted in the interests of the maintenance of public order and the prevention of incitement to commit any offense within the jurisdiction of the police blocks/stations listed in the annex and duly authenticated by me. »

Why did the government make such a decision?

The administration’s decision came after question papers were leaked through some exam centers’ social media platforms within an hour of the start of exams in 2019 and 2020. Last year, exams of the Council of State have been canceled due to the Covid-19 pandemic. Students received grades based on an internal assessment by their teachers.

In 2020, purported images of the Bengali quiz were made available on WhatsApp shortly after the exam started. The West Bengal Board of Secondary Education (WBBSE), which is conducting the review, however claimed that no leaks had been reported.

Similarly, in 2019 images of the Bengali, English, Mathematics and Life Sciences quizzes were released on WhatsApp. However, WBBSE authorities had said the leaked questionnaires were not the ones used for the exams.

The questionnaires were leaked mainly from Malda and Murshidabad district examination centers. Following the allegations, the state’s Education Minister, Partha Chatterjee, had requested reports from WBBSE on the matter. The minister refused to call this a leak because he claimed the footage was made available half an hour after the review and not before it.

Has the internet ever been suspended for exams?

According to state education department officials, this is the first time that the internet has been officially suspended in West Bengal to stop cheating in examination centers. On other occasions, the Internet has been suspended, but without an official announcement.

On October 27, 2021, mobile internet services in Rajasthan were suspended from 9:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m. for the (preliminary) examination of the administrative services of Rajasthan. Internet services in several districts like Jaipur, Dhaulpur, Sawai Madhopur, Bhilwara, Ajmer, Karauli, Hanumangarh, Nagaur etc. hung for several hours. In Jaipur, the bulk texting service and social media were also banned for a few hours.

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Invasion in Ukraine: how the cancer community can help https://templodoconhecimento.com/invasion-in-ukraine-how-the-cancer-community-can-help/ Fri, 04 Mar 2022 21:49:47 +0000 https://templodoconhecimento.com/invasion-in-ukraine-how-the-cancer-community-can-help/

It was impressive to see how quickly global science came together to deal with the COVID-19 pandemic – and much was learned. Academic institutions, big pharma, government and foundations have stepped up to do all they can in an unprecedented way. Two years later, the results are evident as life returns to normal.

The invasion of Ukraine, likewise, is a challenge for global science to respond to human tragedy in a coordinated and timely manner.

There is a window of opportunity to help, there is no time to waste. It’s not too early to do something positive. This includes connecting scientists and clinicians in Ukraine as well as Russia to support those wishing to leave or who are otherwise at risk. Our research labs will benefit from the genius of colleagues with diverse perspectives and viewpoints.

In the clinic, there are opportunities for allied health professionals available while awaiting safe return to their country. With severe nursing shortages in the United States, such an impact could be felt in many hospitals currently working at reduced capacity.

Government funding, including NCI and CDC, professional societies, ACS, etc., should support coordination. Institutions tend to move slowly, but it’s clear that end users can’t wait, and scientists willing to help are ready to help. It would certainly help if visa programs facilitate rapid admission and employment.

Consider how quickly the scientific community has already responded to the Ukrainian challenge:

Russian troops began crossing the Ukrainian border on February 24.

By the morning of February 26 in the Western Hemisphere, more than 100 scientific research laboratories around the world, many of them in the United States, had offered to help Ukrainian researchers, and the list kept growing. I added our lab at Brown University to the list that day, hoping we could help in some way. I was thrilled to see other Brown and Legorreta Cancer Center colleagues, including Jeff Bailey, MD, PhD, Alexandra Deaconescu, PhD, and Tom Bartnikas, MD, PhD, also sign up.

By February 27, the list had grown to over 300, and by the morning of March 2, more than 500 labs had offered to house and support colleagues affected by the Russian invasion of Ukraine. A number of them are university cancer research laboratories. As awareness increases, many leading laboratories are offering to help and more research opportunities are opening up in the industry.

As of March 2, the number of refugees was estimated at 660,000 and growing rapidly as the horrific destruction seen across Ukraine continued. And, sadly, on March 3, Ukraine’s first major city, the Black Sea port of Kherson, had fallen. The number of refugees had exceeded one million according to the UN and should eventually reach four million.

A grim picture of death and destruction emerges for what is rapidly happening in Ukrainian cities as they fall under barbaric military rule.

Suggested immediate actions include:

  • Emergency funds must be urgently allocated to the United States, especially to support the resettlement and employment of refugees who have already left Ukraine and are now ready to contribute to research and clinical care in the States. -United.
  • Cooperation for safe passage, travel, and housing for those wishing to leave Ukraine as well as those who have departed and wish to come to the United States. They will urgently need living expenses, stipends and work authorization.
  • Links can be made with refugees and working through the Red Cross, UN and US government could facilitate communication.
  • Coordination to match those who wish to leave with those who would help researchers and clinicians. While the list of over 500 labs is general, the cancer effort could be more focused and organized at an early stage.
  • Creating a web portal could help Ukrainians or Russians on the Internet directly see and express interest in opportunities. Upcoming national cancer meetings such as the AACR annual meeting in early April this year in New Orleans or others could also help with networking and communication or interviews between interested scientists. A “connectivity map” and AI are tools that come to mind.
  • Those linked to Ukraine and Russia could help identify and communicate with those who would leave. It is clear that many Ukrainians and Russians around the world are connected in real time with their colleagues and family members. Greater awareness of help opportunities can be communicated through social media and personal contacts, for speed and efficiency. The impact of social media in terms of disseminating information and connecting professionals should not be underestimated. Hashtags can be incredibly useful.
  • The necessary resources and infrastructure are urgently needed. Attention to scientific research and health care impact should be a high priority as humanitarian efforts are underway.
  • A unified effort of professional societies, foundations, and the NCI early on could help with university and hospital coordination. There are complexities and things that take time like visas and work permits.

As an example, Brown University actively supports students, faculty, and staff through various in-house services and programs. These include student support services, faculty and staff assistance programs, and academic services.

Externally, Brown University President Christina Paxson updated the university community on existing resources that can help, including partner organizations such as the Scholars at Risk Network and the New University in Exile Consortium, to provide an academic home. sure to Ukrainian scholars. I am proud to be at such a university that is proactively addressing this current global crisis.

I was delighted to see that Governor Daniel McKee of Rhode Island wrote to President Biden on February 28 to welcome Ukrainian refugees to a place of freedom and independence.

Government funding, including NCI and CDC, professional societies, ACS, etc., should support coordination. Institutions tend to move slowly, but it’s clear that end users can’t wait, and scientists willing to help are ready to help.

United States solidarity and strong support for Ukraine against the flagrant, deplorable, and unprovoked aggression was reinforced in President Biden’s State of the Union address on March 1, along with a commitment billion US dollars to help Ukraine. As these and other substantial resources are deployed, let us not forget Ukrainian scientists at all levels, bioengineers, doctors and other health professionals, for the needs continue to grow.

It was very interesting to learn more about the advanced research and clinical oncology capabilities of Ukraine. Amazingly, over the weekend, social media documented at least two bone marrow transplants performed in Kyiv as rockets were falling. It is sad that there is little regard for human life in the current invasion.

There is Russian propaganda claiming that powerful Western oncology groups such as the relatively young @OncoAlert network are refusing to perform bone marrow transplants on Russian children.

Note from Gil Morgan, MD, who leads the OncoAlert Network: It is clear that members of this network who are leaders in the oncology world could also help attract oncologists. It should be noted that it is incredible for anyone to suggest that children with cancer would be denied life-saving bone marrow transplants because of their race, ethnicity or country of birth.

Science is very strong in Ukraine. Here is a history of the General Assembly of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.

Regarding cancer specifically, Ukraine has a National Cancer Institute, which was founded in 1920. Located in Kyiv, this institution is a full member of the International Union Against Cancer. A major oncology journal in Ukraine is ONCOLOGY: Scientific practical review.

In an interview published by WHO on November 11, 2021, Sergii Sikachov, a Ukrainian oncologist, described Ukraine’s challenges in building a modern cancer control system and the challenges presented by the COVID-19 pandemic.

“Cancer surgery is moving very quickly,” Sikachov said. “If you know English, you have access to a lot of useful information. You can provide medical care that meets international standards in Ukraine, but we need the right environment to do so.

Ukraine has a complicated history with the Nobel Prize. For decades, Ukrainians were barred from winning Nobel Prizes because Ukraine lacked statehood. These people are listed under Ukraine and have won Nobel Prizes:

  1. Georges Charpak*, born at the time in Poland, now in UkrainePhysics, 1992
  2. Roald Hoffman*, born at the time in Poland (Second Polish Republic), now in UkraineChemistry, 1981
  3. Selman A. Waksman, Physiology or Medicine, 1952
  4. Shmuel Yosef Agnon, Literature, 1966
  5. Svetlana Alexievich*, born in UkraineLiterature, 2015
  6. Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov, Physiology or Medicine, 1908

From what I have seen, it would seem that the President of Ukraine, Volodymyr Zelenskyy, is also a strong candidate for the Nobel Peace Prize, given his stature, his courage and his speeches and recent positions. There is a lot of hope for the world when a leader tells his government that he doesn’t want his picture on his walls, but puts up the pictures of his children and thinks of them when he makes his decisions.

]]> Integrated Approach in Science and Technology – Latest News from Jammu and Kashmir | Tourism https://templodoconhecimento.com/integrated-approach-in-science-and-technology-latest-news-from-jammu-and-kashmir-tourism/ Mon, 28 Feb 2022 05:04:42 +0000 https://templodoconhecimento.com/integrated-approach-in-science-and-technology-latest-news-from-jammu-and-kashmir-tourism/

Dr Arshed Iqbal Dar
National Science Day is celebrated every year as one of the major science festivals in India with an appropriate theme. The theme of the year 2022 is “An integrated approach in science and technology for a sustainable future”. The main context behind the theme of the year 2022 is to chew more than two keywords viz. “integrated approach” and “sustainable future”.
Well, the Covid-19 pandemic has taught us the beauty of ties and connections between institutions, departments, ministries and industries. The integrated approach followed by the Nations during the pandemic has been the mark of the survival of humanity. In this context, the Department of Science and Technology, Govt. of India explodes this time using the prism of integration in science and technology for a sustainable future.
The statement issued by the Ministry of Science and Technology made it clear that the celebration of National Science Day or any other important science day should not be limited to a one-day event and in this context, the main objectives were extracted from the keywords of the theme. of the year-2022 and it is the synergy of all science ministries and departments to work on a thematic approach, integration of technical, engineering and medical institutions, integration with government line ministries and finally integration with industries for sustainable development. development. Additionally, the United Nations has declared that the year 2022 will be dedicated to basic science, with a focus on how scientific research can propel sustainable development and improve the quality of life around the world. It is universally accepted that scientific research is the best result of the human intellect and fundamental for the progress of society and the understanding of nature, the universe, matter and all that constitutes them.
The learning environment under the banner of integrated approach is Multiple Learning Environment (MLE) – the combination of Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) and Physical Learning Environment (PLE ) and will be the integration of skills with content for the preparation of future citizens of society. Emphasis on the learning environment should be a prerequisite as it can affect learning outcomes and student developments without any reservations. This multiple learning environment (MLE) requires a strong link between learning institutions and industries and this approach is going to be the central tenet of the integrated approach in science and technology for a sustainable future.
National Science Day is celebrated every year on February 28 and on this day, all Indians show their respect to the famous Indian physicist CV Raman (Chandra Shekhar Venkata Raman) to mark the discovery of “Raman Effect”. Raman scattering (or the Raman effect) was discovered in 1928 by CVRaman and in 1930, for the first time in its history, an Indian scholar, educated entirely in India was awarded the highest scientific honor, the Nobel Prize in Physics . In 1949 he founded the Raman Research Institute in Bangalore, served as its director and remained active there until his death on November 21, 1970, at the age of eighty-two. Raman received the highest honor, the Bharat Ratna, bestowed by the Indian government.
As we celebrate National Science Day, we learn that teaching science requires motivation, innovation and commitment rather than routine work. As the interconnected world has entered the era of biotechnology and nanotechnology, we must introduce courses like biotechnology, bioinformatics, nanotechnology, etc. at preliminary levels. There are various shortcomings in the methodology of teaching science subjects and there is an urgent need to take concrete measures to improve the quality of teaching in science subjects. The younger generation must be aware of the fact that our quality of life, the strength of our economy and the very future of our society depend on the innovations and discoveries made by scientists and above all, the development of new techniques is sine qua non, so now is the time to explore something new, something new that may prove fruitful for humanity. One of the best ways to improve our performance in scientific research is to develop research-oriented science curricula and its link with industry for successful translation. We need to focus on cultivating the habit of independent and critical thinking in undergraduate and postgraduate students. Such emphasis on analytical thinking and problem solving is extremely important in a country like India which is riddled with socio-economic and development challenges. A nation with a week-long body of doctoral scientists, ill-equipped laboratories and limited ICT will struggle to meet its challenges. We must also take into account the importance of scientific culture in society at large. If people don’t understand the basic science of germs, they’ll be less likely to wash their hands. If the community does not understand the cause and impact of climate change, its inhabitants will be less inclined to take corrective action. In this context, understanding the linkages and linkages across science departments and industries will open fruitful chapters in science and technology.
Due to the social nature of science, the dissemination of scientific information is crucial to its progress. Some scientists present their findings and theories in papers presented at meetings or published in scientific journals. These articles allow scientists to inform others about their work, expose their ideas to criticism from other scientists and, of course, keep abreast of scientific developments around the world. The advancement of information science and the development of information technology are shortening the time between discovery and application. It is relevant to mention here that the dissemination of scientific information and the visibility and easy access of publications at the right time are not only to increase the level of citations, but it is also a prerequisite for the creation of new approaches in the world of science and technology. Many models have been adopted by different business tycoons from time to time to boost their economy viz. advertising agencies display the pivotal elements of their organization and interested candidates follow their activity and disinterested skip their ads. In the same way, global publishing giants can follow the same mantra not only to boost their publishing industry, but their timely access and dissemination can open new vistas in science and technology for a sustainable future.
It is universally accepted that the 19th century was marked by the transportation revolution. This was followed by remarkable changes in space technologies and computing, which together ushered in the communications revolution. In the 20th century, the world has seen several desirable developments driven by scientific and technological research. Science and technology have become the determinants of economic growth and development. To attain a position among the developed countries of the world, the government of India has taken the right step to make a quantum increase in infrastructure. But this is not enough because the quality of education is a very important factor that must be taken care of as a priority. Success in science and scientific work does not come from the provision of unlimited or large resources, but from the wise and careful selection of problems and objectives. A scientific mind is an adventurous one and is not afraid to speak the truth even if it does not correspond to established thoughts, beliefs and superstitions. Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru, the first Prime Minister after independence, believed that a strong scientific base and scientific temperament are the most powerful catalysts for economic performance and social progress. If India wants to transform into a developed nation, it needs a major boost in science and technology, especially in the border regions. This is due to the fact that science and technology profoundly influence humanity and society, as well as progress for the future. About fifty years ago, both Houses of Parliament passed a far-sighted science resolution emphasizing the importance of science and technology in developing countries like ours. The resolution provides. “The key to national prosperity, besides the spirit of the people, lies in the effective combination of three factors: technology, raw materials and capital investment.
Much has been accomplished since the adoption of this resolution.
Here one can safely conclude that science and technology relates to the creation of knowledge and then translates the knowledge created into application and this is possible through the integrated approach, but this approach requires a combination of good strategy and better execution for a sustainable future .
(The author is assistant professor of zoology Islamia college of Science & Commerce Srinagar J&K)

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Daphne Bramham: Are policymakers making BC’s drug crisis worse? https://templodoconhecimento.com/daphne-bramham-are-policymakers-making-bcs-drug-crisis-worse/ Thu, 24 Feb 2022 22:26:30 +0000 https://templodoconhecimento.com/daphne-bramham-are-policymakers-making-bcs-drug-crisis-worse/

Opinion: There is no evidence that BC’s “safer supply” of drugs for drug addicts outside of a clinical setting is working. Could this make matters worse?

Content of the article

With a pandemic and an epidemic of drug overdoses, Canadian politicians are making life-or-death political decisions that they believe are based on science.

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Decisions have far-reaching implications and, as Ottawa’s 22-day blockade demonstrated, they are never universally popular.

Harvard professor Bertha Madras briefly made this point when testifying about the science behind British Columbia and Canada’s experiment with a “safe supply” or “safer supply” of drugs.

It started in March 2020 as “risk mitigation drugs” during the COVID-19 pandemic and was expanded in mid-2021 with a three-year commitment of $37.6 million from governments British Columbia and the federal government.

Both admitted that it was unprecedented to provide heroin outside of a clinical setting, let alone amphetamines, benzodiazepines and alcohol.

Still, safe supply advocates are urging the federal government to expand the program nationwide even though Overdose deaths in British Columbia in 2021 rose 26% to a record 2,224 and there was what the BC Center for Disease Control called “an extremely high number of non-fatal events.”

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“The responsibility you have is serious,” Madras told an Alberta legislative committee set up to review security of supply. “The stakes are very high and the decisions you make can affect generations to come.

“It is indeed an experience with vast and multi-generational implications. It’s also really a human experiment without informed consent because the evidence in terms of randomized controlled trials, meta-analysis reviews sucks.

The psychobiologist was chairman of the 2017 U.S. Presidential Commission on Drug Addiction and the Opioid Crisis and served as “Deputy Drug Czar” during the George W. Bush administration.

She suggested policymakers ask the following questions: Is there evidence that a secure supply will stabilize or decrease the number of people with opioid use disorders? Will a secure supply lead to an increase in drug use? Will people use a secure supply safely? Will it be used as an incentive that gets people into treatment and recovery?

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Over three days of hearings, his questions were asked and answered. They likely will be again when hearings resume in March, although the answers may be different since the experts invited include key advocates for safe supply.

Guests include: Dr. Perry Kendall, a former health worker from British Columbia; Dr. Mark Tyndall, whose vending machines supply heroin to 70 users; Cheyenne Johnson, executive director of the BC Center on Substance Use; and Eris Nyx of the Drug Users Liberation Front.

SFU’s Julian Somers center for applied research in mental health and addiction reviewed 839 studies on safe supply for the committee as a reference for its members.

None of the studies were based on randomized trials, which are considered the gold standard of scientific research. And, there has been no systematic review of their findings.

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Eighteen reported original results, 16 of which were performed in Canada. Of the 18, a dozen results were based on interviews with participants and six on questionnaires.

None used objective measures, such as biomarkers in urine, to determine whether participants also used other drugs or used administrative data to determine whether there was a reduction in crime, visits to emergencies or a change in housing status from homeless to housed.

Neglecting these social factors, Somers said, “is an unusual, very contrarian view in the field of addiction (research), where the demand for addiction is massively created by isolation and estrangement from society. “.

Social integration is the principle on which Portugal formulated its wide range of highly successful drug policies more than 20 years ago, which include both harm reduction, decriminalization of personal possession, housing and income support for drug addicts and their families.

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Portugal’s drug czar, Dr João Goulão, was also asked to testify in March.

“What worries me is that we have made progress in reducing prescriptions and that we could reverse this by prescribing more opioids than we have ever prescribed under a safe supply” , psychiatrist Nickie Mathew told the committee.

Mathew is the Head of Complex Mental Health and Addictions Services for the Provincial Health Services Authority of British Columbia.

Since a safe supply, he and others said the retail price of hydromorphone — the prescription heroin pill — went from $10 to 25 cents.

He and other experts told the committee about an overwhelming number of peer-reviewed studies that have found that whenever addictive substances are more readily available – whether alcohol, tobacco, of cannabis or prescription opioids – consumption and addiction are increasing.

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Recent studies that examined the massive overprescription of opioids in Canada and the United States in the early 2000s concluded that between 8 and 12% of patients eventually became addicted and that they represented up to 80% of people with opioids. use the mess.

Between March 27 and August 31, 2020, Mathew said “risk mitigating medication” was provided to 2,780 British Columbians.

Of these, 52% were prescribed opioids, 24% were prescribed amphetamines, 20% were prescribed alcohol withdrawal management medications, and 12% were prescribed benzodiazepines.

Ten people died. But the data doesn’t provide any insight into what prescription drugs they were using or what drugs were in their system when they died. Proponents say the 0.4% death rate is proof of the success of the safe supply.

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But Mathew noted the annual rate was 0.2% in 2017 – the first full year after British Columbia declared overdose deaths a public health emergency.

Rather than assuming that a safe supply keeps users alive, Mathew said it could also be that the diversion of “safe supply” drugs to the streets leads to addiction and even deaths.

Prescriber guidelines allow up to 14 8mg hydromorphone (heroin) tablets per day with prescriptions sufficient to last up to several weeks. For context, the usual amount prescribed for patients recovering from major surgery is 1-2 mg, three times a day for three days.

Mathew also spoke about the faulty assumptions of prescribers. One of his patients, a UBC student, repeatedly overdosed on prescription hydromorphone and ended up in Vancouver General Hospital before being referred to him.

Each time, she was discharged with another prescription for hydromorphone and not Suboxone, an opioid agonist therapeutic drug that relieves cravings.

Is safe supply safe? It will be interesting to hear what advocates have to say when, or if, they testify before the Alberta panel in March.

dbramham@postmedia.com

Twitter: @bramham_daphne


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Therapeutic Goods Administration of Australia authorizes Moderna’s Covid-19 vaccine for children (6-11 years) https://templodoconhecimento.com/therapeutic-goods-administration-of-australia-authorizes-modernas-covid-19-vaccine-for-children-6-11-years/ Thu, 17 Feb 2022 05:30:14 +0000 https://templodoconhecimento.com/therapeutic-goods-administration-of-australia-authorizes-modernas-covid-19-vaccine-for-children-6-11-years/

DGAP-News: Moderna, Inc. / Keyword(s): Miscellaneous
17.02.2022 / 06:20
The issuer is solely responsible for the content of this announcement.

Therapeutic Goods Administration of Australia authorizes Moderna’s Covid-19 vaccine for children (6-11 years)

CAMBRIDGE, MA /ACCESSWIRE/February 16, 2022/ Moderna, Inc., (NASDAQ:MRNA), a biotechnology company pioneering messenger RNA (mRNA) therapeutics and vaccines, today announced that the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) in Australia has granted a interim registration for use of Moderna’s COVID-19 mRNA vaccine, Spikevax, 50 mcg dose, two-dose series, for active immunization to prevent COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 in children aged 6 to 11 years old.

“The TGA clearance for the use of our COVID-19 vaccine in children aged 6-11 in Australia is a significant milestone for Moderna as it is the first regulatory clearance for the use of our vaccine in this age group. We are grateful to the TGA for their diligence and the Australian government for their continued confidence in our mRNA platform,” said Stephane Bancel, Chief Executive Officer of Moderna. “We are grateful to have the opportunity to provide protection against COVID-19 to this important age group, protecting children and allowing them to continue to live as normally as possible.”

Professor Robert Booy of the Immunization Coalition commented: “I welcome this decision by the TGA and look forward to increasing the uptake of childhood vaccination even further to ensure the protection of children and maximize school attendance.

Moderna’s vaccine has been studied in the ongoing “KidCOVE” Phase 2 study, a randomized, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled expansion study to assess safety, tolerability, reactogenicity and efficacy of two 50 µg doses of Spikevax (mRNA-1273) given to healthy children 28 days apart. The study population was divided into three age groups (6 to less than 12 years, 2 to less than 6 years and 6 months to less than 2 years).

Data submitted to the TGA demonstrated that vaccination of children 6 to less than 12 years of age with a primary series of 50 μg mRNA-1273 is associated with non-inferior anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody responses compared to to that of individuals aged 18-25 in the Cove phase 3 study. The geometric mean ratio (GMR) comparing the response in children to the response in young adults from the Phase 3 COVE study was 1.5 (95% CI: 1.3, 1.8), with a 99.3% seroresponse rate. Two 50 μg doses of mRNA-1273 were generally well tolerated.

The study is being conducted in collaboration with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), which is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA), which is part of the Office of the Secretary deputy. for Preparedness and Response at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). The ClinicalTrials.gov identifier is NCT04796896.

Moderna’s vaccine has already received regulatory approval for adults and adolescents in Australia. On August 9, 2021, the TGA granted provisional registration to the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine for active immunization to prevent COVID-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus in persons 18 years of age and older. On September 3, 2021, provisional registration was extended to persons aged 12 and over.

About Moderna

In the 10 years since its inception, Moderna has grown from a research-stage company advancing messenger RNA (mRNA) programs, to a company with a diverse clinical portfolio of vaccines and therapeutics in seven modalities , an extensive portfolio of intellectual property in areas such as mRNA and lipid nanoparticle formulation, and an integrated manufacturing facility that enables large-scale clinical and commercial production at unprecedented speed. Moderna maintains alliances with a wide range of domestic and foreign government and commercial collaborators, which has enabled the pursuit of both breakthrough science and rapid scale-up of manufacturing. Most recently, Moderna’s capabilities have come together to enable the licensed use and approval of one of the oldest and most effective vaccines against the COVID-19 pandemic.

Moderna’s mRNA platform leverages continuous advancements in basic and applied mRNA science, delivery technology and manufacturing, and has enabled the development of therapeutics and vaccines for infectious diseases, immuno-oncology, rare diseases, cardiovascular diseases and autoimmune diseases. Moderna has been named one of Science’s Top Biopharmaceutical Employers for the past seven years. To learn more, visit www.modernatx.com.

AUTHORIZED USE

The Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) in Australia has granted interim registration for the use of Moderna’s COVID-19 mRNA vaccine, Spikevax, for active immunization to prevent COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 in people aged six and over.

Forward-looking statements

This press release contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, as amended, including with respect to: the Company’s development of a vaccine against COVID-19 (mRNA-1273, or Spikevax); the ability of Spikevax to elicit a neutralizing antibody response in children similar to that in older populations and to protect against COVID-19; and the safety and tolerability profile of Spikevax. The forward-looking statements contained in this press release are neither promises nor guarantees, and you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements because they involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors, many of which are beyond within Moderna’s control and which could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. These risks, uncertainties and other factors include the risks and uncertainties described under “Risk Factors” in Moderna’s most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and in subsequent documents written by Moderna. with the SEC, which are available on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. Except as required by law, Moderna disclaims any intention or responsibility to update or revise the forward-looking statements contained in this press release in the event of new information, future developments or otherwise. These forward-looking statements are based on Moderna’s current expectations and speak only as of the date hereof.

Moderna contacts:

Media:
Luc Mircea Willats
Director, Corporate Communications
Luke.Mirceawillats@modernatx.com

Investors:
Lavina Talukdar
Senior Vice President and Head of Investor Relations
617-209-5834
Lavina.Talukdar@modernatx.com

THE SOURCE: Moderna, Inc.

17.02.2022 Broadcast of a Corporate News, transmitted by the DGAP – a service of EQS Group AG.
The issuer is solely responsible for the content of this announcement.

DGAP distribution services include regulatory announcements, financial/corporate news and press releases.
Archive at www.dgap.de

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Telecommuting can help solve environmental problems and develop smart cities https://templodoconhecimento.com/telecommuting-can-help-solve-environmental-problems-and-develop-smart-cities/ Sun, 30 Jan 2022 03:15:02 +0000 https://templodoconhecimento.com/telecommuting-can-help-solve-environmental-problems-and-develop-smart-cities/

To stop the COVID-19 pandemic, most activities in various countries have been suspended, people have been visiting stores less often, the number of entertainment activities, travel and especially flights have decreased. Many people around the world were working or studying from home. Researchers immediately began looking for ways to stop the spread of the coronavirus, but the situation raised another question: how will reduced human activity affect our environment?

“Many energy and environmental benefits come from working remotely. These are mainly related to the elimination of the need to travel to the main premises of the organization or the reduction of the distance necessary to go to the coworking space”, explains Dr Paris Fokaides, researcher in head at the faculty of civil engineering and architecture KTU.

The main reason for the change is the cancellation of the trip

The study examined the role of remote working during the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on sustainability in the context of smart cities.

“We used as a case study the work habits of a university staff, where mixed scenarios of home office – coworking and office work were developed with the use of location-allocation modeling. Our study has introduced the key elements of remote working and smart cities and the intersections between them,” says Dr. Fokaides.

Paris Fokaides

© KTU archyvo nuotr.

The novelty of the scientists’ approach stems from the establishment of impact indicators that numerically demonstrate the potential of remote work models to help save fuel and carbon dioxide (CO2) resources and reduce the emission of other pollutants. The study analyzed changes in energy consumption patterns that emerged amid the COVID-19 pandemic, where the largest percentage of the workforce shifted to working from home. The well-established GIS tool was used to map employee locations.

According to Dr Fokaides, apart from the benefits of using less transport, which includes less fuel consumption and lower emissions of CO2 and other air pollutants, one of the most profound changes that has been observed during locking, was the power consumption patterns. “The majority of organizations during this period went out of business, immediately reducing energy demand and drastically changing energy consumption patterns from what was hitherto known to be the typical and typical case. status quo.”

The KTU researcher adds that remote working includes other direct and indirect environmental impacts, such as reduced noise pollution, reduced land requirements for road networks and infrastructure, reduced traffic congestion and savings in energy and material resources through less use of paper and plastic.

Enables faster development of smart cities

According to scientists, telework can make a significant contribution to the development of smart cities, in particular by reducing the need for transport.

“The transport sector is a major key player for the realization of smart cities with objectives set to reduce congestion, accidents and air pollution in European cities, remote working can contribute significantly to the development of a model of sustainable urban mobility”, says Dr Fokaides. .
In a smart city, digital and telecommunications technologies are used to make traditional networks and services more efficient for the benefit of its inhabitants and businesses. According to Dr Fokaides, this means using smart urban transport networks, improved water supply as well as waste disposal facilities and energy-efficient smart buildings, all of which save energy and waste. material resources and minimize carbon emissions.

“Smart cities aim to improve the quality of life of its citizens, as well as to strengthen the economy through the promotion of sustainable urban mobility and the increased use of clean and energy-efficient vehicles”, underlines the KTU researcher.

The researchers point out that the important aspects for the development of smart cities are the Internet of Services (IoS) and the Internet of Energy (IoE), which determine how natural resources and networks, including electricity, gas, transport, water, utilities, data, buildings, must be managed and used correctly.

“The up-to-date, real-time information and data that can be collected and transferred using CPS systems ensures the implementation of quick and effective actions that will keep city operations stable and secure, while resource savings are achieved and carbon emissions are minimized,” says Dr. Fokaides.

According to him, the long-term consequences of the pandemic will trigger more permanent changes related to the digitalization of work and other daily activities and will consequently lead to a reduction in mobility needs and overall fossil energy consumption.

The study described above was published in the prestigious scientific journal Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects and has already generated over 13,000 views.

It is forbidden to copy the text of this publication without the written permission of DELFI.

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scientists without quality data are like unarmed soldiers in a war zone https://templodoconhecimento.com/scientists-without-quality-data-are-like-unarmed-soldiers-in-a-war-zone/ Wed, 26 Jan 2022 15:06:52 +0000 https://templodoconhecimento.com/scientists-without-quality-data-are-like-unarmed-soldiers-in-a-war-zone/

Some of the most important public health lessons from the COVID pandemic relate to how government should share data with the public, how updates on responses should be clearly articulated, and the importance of sharing data. information, information and all relevant information. the data is public.

The pandemic has brought these issues to the fore. But the challenge extends beyond the borders of COVID-19 to all diseases.

Mistakes made during the pandemic in data collection, management and dissemination need to be acknowledged. And lessons need to be learned and shared about navigating public health data effectively.

We looked at the effectiveness of containment in South Africa and how data was used during the pandemic. We concluded that data collection and dissemination could have been much more efficient. And that if that had been the case, it would have determined better results.

For example, if more detailed localized data had been publicly available across the country, it would have been possible to quantify and compare the spread of the disease between cities, towns and rural areas. This, in turn, would have meant that those making political decisions were better informed.

Our analysis and conclusions underscored that quality data is the cornerstone of good science. Without it, scientists tasked with informing the public about vital public health issues are like unarmed soldiers in a war zone.

We cannot overemphasize the importance of epidemiological data and their relevance in managing the early stages of an outbreak. However, as a disease progresses, the underlying data and reporting must also improve to manage the progression of the epidemic.

Beyond Data

Information sharing is not just about sharing data with the public.

Take the question of aggregated reports. Limited inferences can perpetuate public biases. Aggregated reports present data in a way that shows a cumulative count or a chronological progression of the total sum of data. These charts from the World Health Organization are a good example of good and bad practice. Good because the data is shared, bad because only one variable perspective is shared at a time.

Another challenge is that the underlying data is not easily accessible to other scientists. So even though comprehensive and well-presented epidemiological reports are published by the National Institute of Communicable Diseases (NICD) in South Africa and it now has a very usable dashboard, the underlying data does not are not available for further viewing or analysis by others.

Another problem with aggregate reports is that they summarize nuances and public health interventions and changes over time. This includes things like changing patient monitoring guidelines, introducing a new treatment regimen (as was the case with HIV/TB) and innovative clinical monitoring strategies.

Members of the public should have comparisons of the state of the current outbreak to previous outbreaks of a similar nature. This would be contextually relevant and could help people evaluate information as well as data and move towards evidence-based decision-making.

Timelines can be adjusted from these dashboards. But the way the data is presented means it’s difficult to contextually compare different infectious disease outbreaks (or clusters of outbreaks of a specific disease) and the impact on the healthcare system.

Reflect changing realities

Epidemics are not static. A disease can lose its epidemic status and become endemic, as it becomes a constant and more predictable presence in a particular location. For example, the contagiousness and harmfulness of a disease can change as a result of an actual intervention, such as an effective vaccine or effective non-pharmaceutical interventions.



Read more: We cannot banish COVID-19. But we can end the pandemic with vaccinations


In the early stages of an outbreak, there are three main data points that are useful to everyone and should be shared regularly: time, location and number.

Typically, after any outbreak, the government or health authorities take steps to share baseline data and infographics with the public that purport to support the interventions they may recommend.

This was the case during COVID.

But we identified some immediate problems with this approach.

First, much of the information is only published in formats such as infographics that are not machine readable. This makes further analysis impossible without research groups and members of society manually transcribing, collecting and sharing the data. This causes a trust issue with the data: there can be multiple sources of the same information and the process is error prone.

Second, data shared over time and subsequent visualizations became less frequent (in the case of data sharing) and remained aggregated (in the case of dashboards and infographics). An unfortunate consequence was that there was no transparency or clear correlation between the underlying evidence and the decisions made.

So how can public health decision-making stop being treated as a state secret? Aren’t there just ways to openly share the required data and create platforms to engage with the numbers?

We think it is indeed possible.

The path to follow

Disaggregated data. In a country with inequalities like South Africa, aggregate data can mask the disproportionate effects of an event on specific communities. Making disaggregated raw data available can enable evidence-based advocacy and interventions to more effectively address the needs of marginalized communities.

Accessible data. Information should be shared with the inclusion of indices, measurements and simplified machine-readable data types. This would allow for wider use and add a layer of transparency. It would also create an opportunity for community-led monitoring and evaluation outside of government.

Choose the appropriate visualizations. We strongly recommend representing data as a relative number (i.e. as percentages or by population size) in addition to absolute numbers. It would make it more accessible. Ordinary citizens could better understand where things stand and how they are developing. It would also help inform any changes they might choose to implement to keep them safe.

Additionally, previous outbreaks of a similar or identical pathogen should also be displayed. This would allow people to contextually assess similarities and differences at a glance. Here is a good example.

Flaws to overcome

COVID-19 has exposed the fragmented way data is published and how insufficient data sharing can be if not done locally.

In some cases, data quality issues also undermine public confidence in the system. Trust is also affected by how often data is shared. Time and date inconsistencies for data sharing seem to be a universal problem. This breeds public distrust.

Finally, the information shared should not only support “good news”. Negative data, such as side effects of a particular treatment or medical intervention, should also be shared.

From COVID-19, we learned that there are multiple opinions around a specific issue. Some of these opinions have been misinformed. But one cannot blame the uninformed when information important for decision-making is not freely and easily accessible. Without the required supporting information, citizens will continue to make assumptions or believe misinformation and disinformation that is not based on evidence. Their spread may be unavoidable. But lack of access to quality data is not.

Nompumelelo Mtsweni, Data Visualization Developer, Elizabeth Cornelia Greyling, Head of Strategy at Columbus Stainless, and Emmanuel A. Simon, Digital Strategy Consultant, also contributed to this article.

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